Recent Submissions

  • Thinking of a position outside the US? Dos and Don'ts of international business schools

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Richter, A.; Shenoy, P.; Patient, David; Cojuharenco, I.; El Nayal, O.; Hartman, S.; Caprar, D.; Rerup, C.; Grohsjean, T.; Lowe, K. (2020)
  • An integrative view on refugee research: New research insights and lessons learned for academics

    Quataert, Sarah; Buyens, Dirk; Zellhofer, D.; Gallagher, V.; Roy, P.; Hong, H.-J.; Buchelt, B.; Nair, S. (2020)
  • Towards degrowth-conform organizational models: Framework development and application

    Hankammer, Stephan; Kleer, Robin; Mühl, Lena; Euler, Johannes
    Economic growth is predominantly seen as a central economic and political goal. Recently, this view has been increasingly criticized and the idea of sustainable degrowth emerged as an alternative paradigm in order to ensure human wellbeing within planetary boundaries. As business activity is a key driving force behind economic growth, the role of corporate organizations in a transition towards a post-growth society is a particularly challenging question. It is for instance still unclear how business models for degrowth- conform organizations could look like. In order to address this research gap, our study aims to elaborate the role and design of organizations and their respective business models within the degrowth context. In this exploratory work, we use a two-step approach: Firstly, based on a systematic literature review we provide an overview on business-oriented findings in the degrowth literature. Based on this, we derive elements for a conceptual framework development to consolidate fragmented findings within the degrowth discourse. The resulting framework serves to describe principles for the design of degrowth-conform organizations. Subsequently, we conduct interviews with three CEOs of certified Benefit Corporations (B Corps) and an in-depth case study with four interviewees with a prime example of a B Corp: Dr. Bronner’s. Overall, our findings show that B Corps to some extent successfully implement numerous degrowth- conform elements within our current economic system. However, tensions regarding growth-orientation remain, and further need for research regarding the role and design of organizations for degrowth is identified."
  • The next talent wave: Career-related antecedents and the anticipatory psychological contract

    Vandenbroucke, Astrid; Buyens, Dirk; Buchelt, Beata (2020)
    Young graduates are the talent of the future and they will become an important group in organizations in the next decennial. Individuals’ career preferences and work values have shifted over time and, as a result, claims in literature posit that the traditional career will slowly fade away in order to make way for the modern career. In addition, strong contextual forces such as globalization, technology, organizational restructuring, and the growth of services have altered the way we look at careers and challenge what older generations have hitherto taken for granted. Research presented at this symposium will add substantially to the existing literature on what new cohorts of graduates expect from their future career and employer. Authored by scholars from eleven European countries, the papers included in this symposium integrate individual and contextual factors influencing graduates' career intentions across contexts.
  • Conflict wisdom in a turbulent environment

    Jordaan, Barney (2020)
    This chapter explores the concept of conflict wisdom as an aspect of self-leadership and a critical competency for organisational agility. Agility (or adaptiveness) is required for organisations to succeed in an uncertain and volatile social, economic and political environment. Developing employees’ conflict wisdom will not only benefit organisations and their employees directly, but can also contribute to the promotion of peaceful resolution of conflicts more generally. However, handling conflict effectively and sustainably needs more than just skills training. More than anything else, it requires the development of a different conflict frame or mindset because, as the saying goes, if we change the way we look at things, the things we look at also change. Some suggestions are proposed for how individuals can develop such a new frame and the role of business in this regard.
  • 3rd Key - Education: Teach mediation as a core subject aligned to real world needs

    Jordaan, Barney; Masucci, Deborah (2020)
    Mediation is rarely taught as a core subject in business schools, law schools and other professional curricula, despite the fact that an increasing number of jurisdictions now provide for some form of court sponsored mediation. A number of global companies include courses in negotiation and mediation in their professional development offering, but the courses are not always effective in addressing real life situations. The case for, and benefits of, including negotiation and mediation as core modules in law courses rather than a mere elective has already been made elsewhere (e.g., Riskin 1984; Lewis 2016). Results from the GPC Series 2016-17 for North America published on the International Mediation Institute’s website[3] further confirm that education in law and business schools in these disciplines has become a major demand for users of dispute resolution services throughout North America.
  • Using schedule risk analysis with resource constraints for project control

    Song, Jie; Martens, Annelies; Vanhoucke, Mario (European Journal of Operational Research, 2021)
    Schedule Risk Analysis (SRA) has shown to provide reliable activity sensitivity information for taking corrective actions during project control. More precisely, by selecting a small subset of activities with high sensitivity values for taking corrective actions, the project outcome can be improved. In resource constrained projects, disrupted activities can affect both their successors as well as other activities when resource conflicts are induced. Since SRA focuses solely on the project network to determine the sensitivity of activities, the traditional SRA metrics do not accurately reflect the activity sensitivity for resource constrained projects. In this paper, the traditional SRA metrics are extended for resource constrained projects, and a novel resource-based sensitivity metric is introduced (RC-SRA metrics). A computational experiment is conducted to investigate the ability of the RC-SRA metrics to identify activities with higher sensitivity values. In addition, two activity selection strategies, defined as the normal strategy and sequential strategy, are designed to select activities for taking corrective actions. Further, two types of corrective actions are proposed to reduce the activity duration or resource demand in case of delays, respectively. Finally, the impact of dynamically updating the RC-SRA metrics during project execution is examined. The computational results show that the normal activity selection strategy is recommended for serial projects, while the sequential strategy is preferred for parallel projects. The results also indicate that reducing the activity durations performs better than reducing the resource demand of activities. Finally, it is shown that updating the RC-SRA metrics dynamically during project execution improves the efficiency of the corrective action taking process.
  • The role of internal quality relations in driving sustainability performance

    Alsawafi, Ahmed; Lemke, Fred; Ying, Yang (Procedia Manufacturing, 2019)
    There are contradictory debates about the impact of quality management and sustainability performance. By taking the internal dimensional view of quality management practices (management and employee), this study develops a research framework that investigates the relationships of internal quality relations and sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from 430 service and manufacturing firms from the UK. Structural equation modelling was used to test the framework. The results indicated positive relationships of all tested hypotheses. This study offers an integrated framework with empirical evidence that identifies the role of internal quality relations in driving the sustainability performance.
  • The Importance of supply chain resilience: An empirical investigation

    Alfarsi, Fahd; Lemke, Fred; Ying, Yang (Procedia Manufacturing, 2019)
    This study aims to explore how supply chain resilience (SCRes) influences firm reputation. SCRes dimensions and their underlying mechanisms in relation to firm reputation attributes are investigated. For gaining a deep understanding of SCRes and its benefits, seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in the UK manufacturing sector. The study results show the process by which SCRes plays a role in sustaining and maintaining a good firm reputation. Underlying mechanisms of these relationships are identified, within the supply chain network. The majority of extant studies have focused on the elements and strategies that can increase supply chain resilience. However, the value of SCRes has not been explored yet. To the best of our knowledge, this exploration represents the first study that delivers empirical insights into the relationship between SCRes and firm reputation. The results of this study clearly outline the structure and mechanism of SCRes that practitioners can use as a guiding framework to protect their firms from disruptions. Suggestions for protecting firm performance are also given.
  • Encouraging customer citizenship behaviours: The unexplored potential of employee gratitude

    Katsaridou, I.; Lemke, Fred (2020)
    Introduction to the research problem Customers may engage in citizenship behaviours (CCBs) with the aims of benefiting service employees (SEs) (c.f., Garma and Bove, 2011). Despite the veracity of this phenomenon and its positive impact on SE well-being, little is yet known on customer motivations for engaging in these supportive actions (Oyedele and Simpson, 2011). Furthermore, it is argued that gratitude expressions following CCBs towards SEs can serve as the basis of a relationship between the interacting parties. Yet, existing literature remains relatively silent on the role of SE gratitude in customer-SE dyads (Mangus et al., 2017). As such, the current study explores customer motivations and expectations for performing CCBs towards SEs. It also captures the effects of SE gratitude, or lack thereof, for the outcome of the service interaction. Literature review Existing research suggests that customers may voluntarily engage in citizenship behaviours (CCBs) that go above and beyond their normative role. Overall, even though CCBs have been found to be associated with favorable organizational outcomes in prior studies (e.g., Groth , 2005; Yi et al., 2011), limited attention has been paid to CCBs that are separated on the basis of specific beneficiaries, such as SEs. More so, although the outcomes of such customer discretionary behaviours have been previously associated with positive indicators of service employee wellbeing (e.g., Verleye et al., 2016; Zimmermann et al., 2011), it is still speculative why customers may be willing to engage in helpful actions that benefit SEs. In addition, it is argued that a lack of a reciprocal response from SEs runs the risk of being associated with customer perceptions of SE ingratitude, which can lead to customer dissatisfaction (Payne et al., 2002). Conversely, SE expressions of gratitude can lead to the development of a relationship between the interacting parties through its function as a moral motivator (e.g., Bock et al., 2016; Greenbaum et al., 2019; Mangus et al., 2017; Palmatier et al., 2009; Raggio et al., 2014). Through the theoretical angle of role theory, equity theory, and social exchange theory, this research aims at fulfilling the so far lacking investigation of customer discretionary behaviours towards SEs. Understanding this complexity is vital for shedding light onto the function of gratitude during the service encounter, as well as on the effects of SE gratitude/ingratitude on relational outcomes. Method/Approach A qualitative interview procedure is undertaken and face-to-face interviews are conducted with customers of full-service restaurants. Restaurants lay fertile ground for fairly routine encounters, as customers have extensive experience with this context. Thus, they are more inclined to have well-developed scripts that guide their behaviour rather automatically. As a result, customer deviations from the script are likely to be more consciously performed in this setting. The aim of this study is fourfold: 1) to detect customer perceptions of behaviours that are performed by them with the aim of benefiting employees while executing their role of delivering the service; 2) to capture customers’ motivations for engaging in such beneficial behaviours; 3) to determine the expected outcome of these behaviours in terms of the service employee’s response; and 4) to investigate customer perceptions and reactions following the actual outcome response received from SEs. Results/Findings The results of the study indicate that there are diverse motivations that underlie customers’ willingness to perform CCBs towards SEs, which are directly and distinctly linked to their expectations for SE responses. In this vein, the research illustrates how customer emotionally supportive behaviour is associated with different motivations and expectations compared to instrumentally supportive behaviour. Furthermore, the exploratory study suggests that SE responses to CCBs can determine whether a simple transaction has the potential to develop into a mutually beneficial exchange between the two parties or not. Moreover, the study findings offer deeper insights into the antecedents, the outcomes, and the contextual factors that frame the occurrence of each type of customer beneficial behaviour. Overall, the findings represent a comprehensive illustration of the CCB phenomenon, leading to robust advice for theory builders and practitioners, specialized in services marketing. Discussion and implications The lack of research examining the motivations and expectations of customers for engaging in supportive actions towards service personnel is surprising, given that a) helpful customers reflect a potential resource for service employees, and b) gratitude expressions constitute a critical component for the formation of relationships between the exchange parties. Therefore, gaining an understanding of how to identify, approach, and respond to helpful customers can equip service managers with the necessary knowledge to promote the occurrence of such behaviours through appropriate SE training and service design. More importantly, however, establishing and maintaining a relationship with these beneficial customers becomes a real opportunity for building customer loyalty in a co-creating fashion. Overall, this paper integrates insights from CCB and social exchange theory to explain customers’ decisions to perform helpful actions that are intended to benefit SEs (and service companies, by extension). Additionally, the study investigates customer perceptions and reactions in the scenario of grateful and ungrateful employee responses along with the associated outcomes for the service encounter. As such, this paper illustrates that the exchanges between service employees and customers are interdependent and draws caution to the fact that for a service encounter to be symmetrical, balanced and thus jointly rewarding, expressions of appreciation and gratitude from the service firm are warranted. Such an approach is conducive to avoiding the potentially irreversibly harmful effects of customer perceptions of ingratitude. When motivations and expectations of helpful customers are not fully understood, disloyalty is a typical consequence in the service environment.
  • Supply chain resilience and firm performance: the balance between capabilities and vulnerabilities

    Alfarsi, F.; Lemke, Fred; Yang, Y. (2020)
    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of supply chain capabilities on firm performance in different vulnerability levels. The data of this study were gathered from 268 manufacturing firms in the UK and analysed using structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that some of supply chain capabilities have no effect on firm performance when the vulnerability is low but they have a great influence when the vulnerability is high and vice versa. The study is the first to deliver empirical insights about the influence of supply chain capabilities on firm performance in both high and low vulnerability.
  • Essays on the future of employee mobility

    Rogies, Philip (2020)
    In this dissertation, we empirically examine a new model of employee mobility in large, hierarchical organizations. Our focus is on three guiding questions: (1) What processes are replacing conventional mobilization and development approaches? And what technologies are expected to play a key role therein?; (2) What technology design are organizations applying to revise their approaches to employee mobility and development?; (3) How do employees experience individual work and development in these new marketplaces of work? We find that traditional mobility models are being replaced by more nimble and market-like forms of mobility that provide employees unprecedented opportunities to self-direct their careers within their broader organization. We emphasize both the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and identify several areas of future inquiry.
  • IT strategy for growth at Fagron

    Viaene, Stijn; De Coninck, Ben (2020)
    The case takes us back to March 2010, when Fagron - a multinational pharmaceutical company focusing on speciality pharma - underwent a strategic transformation to turn the company into a worldwide, scalable organisation. In the case, we follow the newly-appointed Chief Information Officer, Rene Clavaux, who had been asked to lead the Information Management department. As a non-traditional, innovation-driven IT professional, Rene was put in charge of a department that had always been viewed as subordinate to the rest of the organisation. At the Executive Committee meeting of March 2010, he was expected to outline a clear IT strategy to support Fagron's growth, starting with a clear mission statement for the IM department.
  • From me to we or from we to me? Tensions of social identity and change across cultures

    Boros, Smaranda (2020)
    The main theme of the conference is “The challenges of working with diversity in social systems”. With the general demographic trends and the challenges raised by the multiple (simultaneous) transitions faced by society today, diversity is a key topic on the research agendas in Social Sciences. We strive to harness the benefits of diversity in solving difficult societal and environmental issues and at the same time we try to find solutions to the problems associated with diversity (e.g., conflict, marginalization, exclusion).
  • Are you part of the crowd? The role of sex and environmental characteristics for crowdfunding awareness

    Vaznyte, Egle; Andries, Petra; Manigart, Sophie (Journal of Small Business Management, 2020)
    Crowdfunding has become an alternative source of financing for entrepreneurial new ventures and social projects. While several studies have analysed the success factors of crowdfunding campaigns, and identifying and “tapping the right crowd” has been shown crucial in this respect, we still lack a basic understanding of the individuals who are in the crowd. This study aims to increase our understanding of the supply side of crowdfunding by focussing on individuals’ crowdfunding awareness. Integrating information processing theory with insights from financial literacy and institutional theory, and using a sample of 1,042 individuals in Flanders (Belgium), we find that individuals’ awareness of specific crowdfunding initiatives is very low. A favourable normative environment and a conducive environment increases an individual’s awareness of crowdfunding in general, and women tend to derive their crowdfunding awareness to a larger extent from these environmental characteristics than men. These results have important practical and theoretical implications.
  • Variability in hospital treatment costs: A time-driven activity-based costing approach for early-stage invasive breast cancer patients

    Roman, Erin (2020)
    Objectives: Using a generic treatment path for breast cancer, and the molecular subtype perspective, we aim to measure the impact of several patient and disease characteristics on the overall treatment cost for patients. We aim to generate insights into the drivers of cost variability within one medical domain. Methods - A generic treatment pathway was developed, process maps were constructed identifying all relevant activities, medical personnel, direct medical materials and facilities used for treating patients. Through face-to-face interviews with the medical staff and direct observations, time estimates were captured for each activity. The cost of resources were obtained from the financial database of the hospital. The per unit cost of supplying the resources were calculated by dividing the financial cost and the practical capacity rate. The per unit cost was then multiplied by the time spent per activity to obtain the full cost for each step in the treatment process. Results - Significant cost variations within each molecular subtype and across molecular subtypes were found. Typically for luminal A the cost differential amounts to roughly 166%, with the greatest treatment cost amounting to $29,780 relative to $11,208 for a patient requiring less medical activities. The major driver for these cost variations relate to disease characteristics. For the luminal B classification a cost difference of roughly 242% exists due to both disease and patient related factors. The average treatment cost for triple negative patients amounted to $26,923, this is considered to be a more aggressive type of cancer. The overall cost for HER2-enriched is driven by the inclusion of Herceptin, thus this subtype is impacted by disease characteristics. Cost variability across molecular classifications is impacted by the severity of the disease, thus disease related factors are the major drivers of cost. Conclusions - Given the cost challenge in health care, the need for greater cost transparency has become imperative. Through our analysis we generate initial insights into the drivers of cost variability for breast cancer. We found evidence that disease characteristics such as severity and more aggressive cancer forms like HER2-enriched and triple negative have a significant impact on treatment cost across the different subtypes. Similarly, patient factors such as age and presence of gene mutation contribute to differences in treatment cost variability within molecular subtypes.
  • The effect of traffic-light labels and time pressure on estimating kilocalories and carbon footprint of food

    Panzone, Luca; Sniehotta, Falko; Comber, Rob; Lemke, Fred (Appetite, 2020)
    Food consumption decisions require consumers to evaluate the characteristics of products. However, the literature has given limited attention to how consumers determine the impact of food on health (e.g., kilocalories) and on the environment (e.g., carbon footprint). In this exercise, 1511 consumers categorised 43 food products as healthy/unhealthy and good/bad for the environment, and estimated their kilocalories and carbon footprint, which were known to the investigator. The task was performed either with no stimuli (a control group), under time pressure only, with traffic-light labels only, or both. Results show that traffic-light labels: 1) operate through improvements in knowledge, rather than facilitating information processing under pressure; 2) improve the ability to rank products by both kilocalories and carbon footprint, rather than the ability to use the metric; 3) reduce the threshold used to categorise products as unhealthy/bad for the environment, whilst raising the threshold used to classify products as good for the environment (but not healthy). Notably, traffic-light increase accuracy by reducing the response compression of the metric scale. The benefits of labels are particularly evident for carbon footprint. Overall, these results indicate that consumers struggle to estimate numerical information, and labels are crucial to ensure consumers make sustainable decisions, particularly for unfamiliar metrics like carbon footprint.
  • Direct, mold-less production systems

    Poprawe, Reinhart; Bleck, Wolfgang; Piller, Frank T.; Schuh, Günther; Barg, Sebastian; Bohl, Arne; Bremen, Sebastian; Bültmann, Jan; Hinke, Christian; Jiang, Ruth; Kleer, Robin; Merkt, Simon; Prahl, Ulrich; Riesener, Michael; Schrage, Johannes; Weller, Christian; Ziegler, Stephan (2017)
    This contributed volume contains the research results of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields such as engineering, material sciences, economics and social sciences. The book contains coherent deterministic models for integrative product creation chains as well as harmonized cybernetic models of production systems. The content is structured into five sections: Integrative Production Technology, Individualized Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimizing Production Systems and Collaboration Productivity.The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of production engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
  • Local manufacturing and structural shifts in competition: Market dynamics of additive manufacturing

    Kleer, Robin; Pillier, Frank T. (International Journal of Production Economics, 2019)
    Additive manufacturing (AM) allows to build components and finished series products directly from 3D data, without the need for tooling or other setup cost. An often discussed, but hardly investigated opportunity of AM is to establish economical and scalable local production facilities for innovating consumers (who turn into “prosumers”). In this paper, we investigate the effect of such a local production (enabled by AM) on consumer welfare, market structure, and competitive dynamics. Doing so, we provide a new perspective on the fundamental trade-off between the instant availability of (perfectly fitting) products manufactured by and in close proximity to a consumer and the efficiency gains of realizing economies of scale by producing standard products in a central facility. We analyze AM from the perspective of the established theories of user innovation and spatial competition. Building on two game-theoretical (Hotelling) models, we show that there is scope for the improvement of consumer welfare arising from local production by consumer producers. Our analysis allows us to make a number of propositions concerning the effects of AM on market structure when adopted by local users, and to identify the specific conditions of these shifts.
  • Making your way - De (hobbelige) weg naar succes en geluk in leven en werk

    Debruyne, Marion; De Stobbeleir, Katleen (2020)
    15 hardnekkige mythes ontkracht, over de weg naar succes en geluk in leven en werk Wat betekent succes? Is dat enkel hogerop komen? Bestaat de perfecte baan? Moet je alles vooraf uitgekiend hebben, en liefst voor je dertigste? En hoe zit het met die work-life balance? In dit boek zetten de auteurs op een rij wat zij hadden willen weten voor ze hun carrière startten. Ze ontkrachten of nuanceren 15 hardnekkige mythes, en delen waardevolle tips aan de hand van eigen ervaringen, prikkelende getuigenissen en academisch onderzoek. Over die grote droom, over levenslang leren en over 'durven springen'.

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