• An evolutionary perspective on convergence: inducing a stage model of inter-industry innovation

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Fahrni, F. (International Journal of Technology Management, 2010)
    • Business Excellence in technologieorientierten Unternehmen

      Marxt, Christian; Hacklin, Fredrik (2008)
    • Business modeling as configuring heuristics

      Loock, M.; Hacklin, Fredrik (Advances in Strategic Management, 2015)
      While recent research has referred to a cognitive view on ‘business modeling’, it remains unclear in specifying the cognitive foundations of how such modeling happens. This paper proposes building on heuristics as models of individual cognition, which have proved effective foundations of adaptive individual and managerial behaviors. By also drawing on gestalt theory to specify principles of modeling as rule-based form giving, we propose business modeling as a managerial cognitive process of configuring heuristics. The paper makes three contributions. First, we introduce heuristics to the business modeling literature, and so provide an established theory of adaptive individual behavior that strengthens the cognitive foundations of business modeling. Second, we conceptualize and theorize on the cognitive activity of business modeling as an iterative process of configuring heuristics by applying gestalt principles. Although the literature on business models has referred to the theories of configurations and gestalt, it has been left to this work to make the theoretical linkages between heuristics, gestalt theory and business modeling explicit. Third, our work contributes to the micro-foundations of the cognitive processes underlying business modeling and thus to broader accounts of adaptive managerial behaviors.
    • Challenges in the management of new technologies

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Inganäs, Martin (2007)
      In recent cases of industrial dynamics and technological change, the acquisition of technologies is often not based on strategic choice, but can rather be regarded as a required operation in order to tackle risks in emerging phases of consolidation. In particular, the phenomenon of technological convergence is examined as a special case for acquisition of technologies. Introduced by a discussion of drivers for such a convergence, its implications on technology and innovation management practices are investigated. Special focus is laid onto the resulting impact in terms of business model convergence, where creative destruction might lead to severe disruptions in the competitive environment. Based on these reflections, two scenarios for acquisition approaches are introduced. In the first scenario, the convergence causes the current internal competencies to be merged with external ones, resulting in an emerging dominant design, from of which the firm holds a critical resource stake. In the second scenario, the firm's internal competencies remain outside the emerging dominant design. Especially in the latter scenario, the relevance of dynamic capabilities in managerial actions is underlined. The argumentation is illustrated by using the case of telecommunication industry actors in tackling convergence challenges, and in implementing practices for acquisition of technologies and related competencies.
    • Coevolutionary cycles of convergence: an extrapolation from ICT industry

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Fahrni, F. (Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 2009)
      Convergence between technologies can be regarded as an increasingly emerging trend, and has received particular attention in the coming-together of previously distinct products and solutions within the information and communication technologies (ICT) industry. In previous research, the overall impact of the convergence phenomenon remains ambiguous. Whereas some scholars suggest convergence to be associated with disintegration, entry and growth, others relate the phenomenon to opposite effects, such as consolidation and shakeouts. This inconsistency in managerial conceptions on convergence formulates a need for an integrated understanding. Within a multi-case study approach, the convergence within ICT has been observed through examining the coevolution of actors in a converging environment, and patterns in innovation dynamics and managerial responses have been identified. In reflection with existing models of innovation cycles, a model for convergence innovation processes is elaborated and discussed. In particular, the reasoning within the ICT case set is transferred onto the currently emerging entrepreneurial activities in the intersection between nano- and bio-technologies (NBT), resulting in a comparison between ICT and NBT convergences, and deriving recommendations from a retrospective to a predictive context.
    • Convergence and interdisciplinarity in innovation management: a review, critique, and future directions

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Wallin, Martin (The Service Industries Journal, 2013)
      Knowledge integration in the interstices between different disciplinary fields is becoming a critical challenge to innovation management. As disciplines converge into new hybrid fields, such as information and communication technology or nano-biotechnology, it ultimately creates winners and losers, be they new firms that displace incumbents or individual scientists better positioned to reap rewards from new targeted grants. While received literature recognizes the importance of interdisciplinarity, little is known about its theoretical and conceptual antecedents. To meet this challenge, we first review and critique the literature on interdisciplinarity from a knowledge-based perspective, and, second, identify challenges for innovation management and formulate implications for further research. In particular, we outline how individual and team-level heterogeneity should be addressed. By adopting such a micro-level perspective, innovation management can embrace heterogeneity and effectively unlock the true value of interdisciplinary knowledge.
    • Core rigidities in the innovation process: a structured benchmark on knowledge management challenges

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Inganäs, Martin; Marxt, Christian; Pluss, Adrian (International Journal of Technology Management, 2009)
      A changing industrial and technological environment implies a need for a diligent acquisition of dynamic capabilities. While tackling exogenous discontinuities is imperative for success, the problem often lies in the firms' internal processes, where existing core competences might deteriorate to core rigidities. The presented contribution is two-fold: first, a conceptual framework for assessing knowledge-related rigidities along the innovation process is introduced, which is derived from the stage-gate model for new product development. The innovation process is evaluated within cases of four industry firms, with emphasis on identifying problem areas, core rigidities and resulting challenges along the entire way from idea to market launch. Secondly, the challenges are clustered, providing a basis for deriving optimisation approaches, as well as summarised and compared across the cases. In all phases of the innovation process, the benchmark with other firms seems to ease the process of creating awareness on rigidities and to provide a basis for managerial improvement.
    • Corporate venturing: Picture of an industry and recommendations to increase the odds of success

      Battistini, Boris; Altmann, R.; Hacklin, Fredrik; Pertot, A.; Baschera, Pius (2013)
    • Design, product development, innovation: all the same in the end? A short discussion on terminology

      Marxt, Christian; Hacklin, Fredrik (Journal of Engineering Design, 2005)
      The spectrum of terminology to describe the professional and academic field “design” is manifold. Terms like design, engineering design, product development, and innovation are widely accepted and used. Whereas some of these terms are common in the business area, others are rather used in the engineering field. Based on the terminologies from exponents of the design science as well as other communities, the paper tries to broaden the view on what “design” means. Additionally, the paper highlights the accordance and differences between the terms design, product development and innovation, and attempts to derive implications for organising research practice in such a broader context. The paper should be seen as starting point for a wider discussion.
    • Exploring social preferences in private-collection innovation

      Garriga, Helena; Aksuyek, Efe; Hacklin, Fredrik; von Krogh, Georg (Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 2012)
      Firms, research institutions and individuals have long realised the advantages of innovating in an open manner. Companies such as IBM, Philips and Procter & Gamble, increasingly seek to cooperate with outside individuals and organisations to tap into their ideas for new products and services. This approach makes good business sense, but it is also difficult to achieve. In particular, mechanisms that motivate innovators to ‘open up’ are critical in achieving the benefits of open innovation. Private–collective innovation (PCI) has become an increasingly important model for explaining innovation at the boundaries of traditional, closed and open innovation regimes. Previous work has examined PCI both conceptually and empirically, and recent scholarship has focused specifically on the initiation of PCI as it relates to problems of collective action. This work shows that a project will not ‘take off’ unless the right incentives are in place for innovators to contribute their knowledge to open innovation from the beginning. Drawing on behavioural game theory, this paper expands on prior work by exploring social preferences in the initiation of PCI. The authors conducted a simulation study that shows how inequality aversion, reciprocity and fairness affect the underlying conditions that lead to the initiation of PCI. The results indicate that reciprocity and the potential gains for other participants explain changes in individual knowledge sharing in PCI.
    • Global entrepreneurship monitor 2011 - Report on Switzerland.

      Baldegger, Rico; Alberton, Siegfried; Hacklin, Fredrik; Brülhart, Andreas (2012)
      The following Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report 2011 on Switzerland illustrates the differences in entrepreneurial attitudes, activity, and aspirations between economies, revealing the factors that determine the nature and level of national entrepreneurial activity and identifying the policy implications for enhancing entrepreneurship in Switzerland. The GEM data complements existing indicators about competitiveness and innovation and allows the creation of a new aggregate index, the Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEDI).
    • Global entrepreneurship monitor 2013 – Report on Switzerland

      Alberton, Siegfried; Brülhart, Andreas; Baldegger, Rico; Hacklin, Fredrik (2014)
      The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report 2013 on Switzerland illustrates national differences in entrepreneurial attitudes, activity, and aspirations between economies, revealing the factors that determine the nature and level of national entrepreneurial activity, and identifying policy implications for enhancing entrepreneurship in Switzerland. The GEM data complement already existing indicators of competitiveness and innovation. In the 2013 census, perceived opportunities to start a business were higher in Switzerland than in previous years. Switzerland ranks above the average of innovation based countries. What is particularly noticeable is the fact that Fear of Failure has clearly lessened in the past few years, and in 2013 was even lower than in the USA.
    • Global entrepreneurship monitor 2014 – Report on Switzerland

      Baldegger, Rico; Wild, Pascal; Alberton, Siegfried; Hacklin, Fredrik (2015)
      Entrepreneurship has become a term that is increasingly widespread around the world. According to key players in society, including policymakers, academics, entrepreneurs themselves, and the population at large, entrepreneurship tends to be ssociatead with economic development and social well-being. Since its beginning, one of GEM`s core principles has been to explore and assess the role of entrepreneurship in national economic growth.
    • Global entrereneurship Monitor 2012 – Report on Switzerland

      Baldegger, Rico; Alberton, Siegfried; Brülhart, Andreas; Hacklin, Fredrik (2013)
      The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report 2012 on Switzerland illustrates national differences in entrepreneurial attitudes, activity, and aspirations between economies, revealing the factors that determine the nature and level of national entrepreneurial activity, and identifying policy implications for enhancing entrepreneurship in Switzerland. The GEM data not only already existing indicators of competitiveness and innovation, but also allow – as in 2011 – the creation of a new aggregate index, the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI).
    • Implications of technological convergence on innovation trajectories: the case of ICT industry

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Raurich, C.; Marxt, Christian (International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 2005)
      Current innovation management literature and research statically differentiates between incremental and disruptive innovation, as far as the trajectory development is concerned. Incremental innovation is generally comprehended as an improvement of technology performance or product feature enhancement, whereas disruptive innovation is defined based on technologies previously new to the world, combined with their effects on markets. The authors of this research present how a convergence of several well-known, incrementally developing technologies can result in innovations with highly disruptive character in terms of innovation trajectories. Paradoxically, in disruptive situations, operative actions must be taken before strategic planning can be made, as the industrial and economic environment can be regarded as extremely uncertain. In this context, however, we argue that this special case caused by the convergence of technologies can serve to understand certain areas of emerging industrial disruptions and hence support the strategic planning and technology management of a firm acting in this area. The case of information and communication technology (ICT) industry is used to highlight this convergence phenomenon as a special case of emerging disruptive innovation. Based on this example, the process of innovations transforming from incremental towards disruptive due to convergence will be examined, and entrepreneurial recommendations for sustaining the competitive advantage and supporting value creation will be derived.
    • Knowledge management with focus on the innovation process in collaborative networking companies

      Inganäs, Martin; Hacklin, Fredrik; Pluss, Adrian; Marxt, Christian (International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 2006)
      Knowledge lies at the very heart of innovation. A company's ability to create, store and transfer knowledge about technologies, customer needs and the innovation process itself may well determine success in bringing new products or services to the market. Yet, little is known as to how companies treat these issues in practice. This paper presents the results of a research project assessing practices and challenges for innovation-oriented knowledge management within four global technology-based companies in Switzerland. Results are discussed from both company-internal and external network perspectives. For company-internal knowledge management, broad differences in terms of both practices and challenges were found between the companies mainly because of different ways of implementing the innovation process and very different company cultures. Common issues included poor implementation of post-project reviews as well as a need for better integrating market and customer knowledge into all stages of the innovation process. For the external perspective, a more homogenous picture emerged where companies network with different partners throughout the innovation process and where knowledge creation and transfer were substantially greater for long-term partnerships.
    • The limits of industry-centered strategic thinking in an era of convergence

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Battistini, Boris; Wallin, Martin (Strategies, 2013)
    • Management of convergence in innovation strategies and capabilities for value creation beyond blurring industry boundaries

      Hacklin, Fredrik (2008)
      Throughout the past decade, the phenomenon of technological convergence has increasingly gained managerial attention. In this special form of technological change, the coming-together of previously distinct knowledge bases gives rise to the creation of new applications and business models. When such innovations emerge at the intersection of industries, the resulting creative destruction may exceed previously established industry boundaries. As a consequence, convergence does not only promise the creation of new value, but may imply significant disruptions to established industries. Based on investigating 26 firms within the ICT industry, this book highlights implications of the convergence phenomenon on firms’ innovation management practices, and derives strategic guidelines for building and sustaining business models beyond blurring industry boundaries.
    • Media and convergence management

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Klang, David; Baschera, Pius (2013)
      When technologies converge, entire industry sectors are likely to do the same. In order for such transitions to succeed, not only are novel products and services needed, so too is the design of appropriate business models. In this context, it is particularly important from a firm’s perspective to critically question any affiliation to a particular industry. Instead, the business model should become the focus of innovation activities. Using a structured approach, managers can analyze their existing business model with respect to a converging industry sector early on, in order to be able to adapt it well in time to newly emerging market conditions.