• Making the TEN-E regulation compatible with the Green Deal: Eligibility, selection, and cost allocation for PCIs

      Schittekatte, Tim; Pototschnig, Alberto; Meeus, Leonardo; Jamasb, Tooraj; Llorca, Manuel
      The European Green Deal calls for a revision of the Regulation on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure (TEN-E Regulation). The focus of the TEN-E Regulation was on accelerating the development of strategically important projects linking energy networks across the EU, labelled as Projects of Common Interest (PCIs). We provide seven recommendations on how to revise the Regulation to align it with the new full decarbonisation objective. We split the analysis in three parts: the eligibility, selection and cost allocation of PCIs. Regarding eligibility, first, oil networks should be excluded, while the case of gas networks is debatable. Second, power-to-X technologies, electric charging infrastructure and (smart) gas distribution grids could be added to the scope. Regarding selection, first, the Ten-Year Network Development Plan (TYDNP) should be integrated over all energy vectors using an open-source model. Second and third, the scenarios used in the TYNDPs should be subject to the European Commission's approval, while the approval decision for cost-benefit analysis methodologies should be reallocated from the Commission to ACER. Finally, regarding cost allocation, first, cross-border cost allocation decisions should leave all involved jurisdictions with similar benefit-to-cost ratios to increase commitment. Second, affordability should be the only award criterion for European funding.
    • Regulatory experimentation in energy: Three pioneer countries and lessons for the green transition

      Schittekatte, Tim; Meeus, Leonardo; Jamasb, Tooraj; Llorca, Manuel (Energy Policy, 2021)
      Regulatory experimentation is a novel approach to enable innovation in the energy sector, while maintaining the protection of consumers. We define regulatory experimentation as a temporary removal of regulatory barriers. This can be in the form of a derogation from a rule, but it can also mean assigning responsibility to players to conduct activities that they are normally not allowed to engage in. The outcomes of regulatory experiments inform future regulation. In this paper, we discuss experiences with regulatory experimentation in the energy sector of three pioneering countries: the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Italy. We compare the implementations along six design dimensions: eligible project promoters, scope of the derogations, length of the derogations, administration of the experiments, the access to public funding, and transparency. We also discuss how the early approaches have evolved in these countries. Finally, we look ahead and discuss how regulatory experimentation can evolve in the future European context to contribute to the green transition.