• Asymmetry of information and demand response incentives in energy markets

      Ramos, Ariana; De Jonghe, Cedric; Six, Daan; Belmans, Ronnie (2013)
      The price set in electricity markets is given by the intersection of supply and demand during a given time period. The demand-side has traditionally been a price taker while the supply-side actively adjusts the output of the market clearing unit to fluctuations in consumption. Currently, there is a transition toward active demand participation that can adequately respond to market conditions. However, private knowledge of demand adjustments, such as the impact of modifying behavior or the availability to do so, creates asymmetry of information between the active supply side and the passive demand. This paper proposes a revelation mechanism that will prompt the demand-side to choose the best option for themselves among a menu of incentives. Rational behavior of consumers implies that demand will only shift when the benefit of doing so is higher than the costs of modifying consumption patterns. Given differences among demand participants and the objectives of the market operator, an analysis of the rationale of each market agent shows the feasible options for demand incentives. This study enables the design of appropriate market mechanisms aimed to discover customer categories and determine the adequate incentives for each case.
    • Electric vehicles and DSOs: working towards a joint future?

      Broeckx, Saskia; Ramos, Ariana; Meeus, Leonardo (2020)
      The discussion on the network integration of electric vehicles is reminiscent of that on the integration of intermittent renewables, such as solar and wind energy and other alternative sources, about ten years ago. Whenever radically new technologies gain traction, they may have a significant impact on the existing system. But whereas ten years ago any calls for early impact assessment were met with scepticism, the sector now seems to have learned its lesson. Although demand for electric vehicles is growing, mainstream adoption is still far from being achieved. Nevertheless, DSOs and regulators are already seriously considering the challenges ahead. After all, the mobility landscape may change faster than currently expected and they feel it is better to be prepared than to be caught out. On 12 December 2019, the DSO Chair organised a workshop to discuss challenges and issues related to the demand-side integration of electric vehicles into the electricity distribution network. Prior to the workshop we interviewed key stakeholders and participants, as well as several experts, to gather background information as a basis for discussion. This white paper provides a round-up of the findings and insights as well as suggesting areas for further exploration.
    • Energy Storage. Our take on business model and regulation

      Broeckx, Saskia; Ramos, Ariana; Fernandez, Luisa; Meeus, Leonardo (2019)
      The electricity landscape is in a state of flux, not least due to the increasing integration of renewable energy sources and distributed generation. This has sparked growing interest in energy storage, arguably an important part of the renewable energy mix. How can energy storage be used and integrated into existing power systems, in both residential and industrial environments? This is the key question the STORY project aims to address. Funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, STORY is a five-year research project analysing new energy storage technologies and their benefits. It features six demonstration case studies and involves 18 partner institutions in seven European countries. One of these partner institutions is Vlerick Business School. In a context where several different actors can use storage assets, it is essential to identify business models and regulation that will make energy storage sustainable, which is exactly where our expertise lies. We have taken the lead on the business cases supporting the rollout of electricity storage at the distribution level of the grid; more specifically, on those business cases revolving around the challenges of storage deployment and the interaction between the business models and the enabling market and regulatory context.
    • The future of DSOs. Our take on energy communities and regulatory sandboxes

      Broeckx, Saskia; Hadush, Samson Yemane; Ramos, Ariana; Meeus, Leonardo (2019)
      The energy transition is changing the energy ecosystem. Until recently, energy production was mostly centralised, with relatively few large power plants connected to the transmission system operated by transmission system operators (TSOs). Regulatory changes to accommodate the integration of renewable energy initially focused on the transmission aspect, which resulted in a significant transformation of the TSOs, while leaving the distribution system operator (DSO) landscape virtually unaffected. In recent years, however, due in part to advances in renewable energy technology, power generation and distribution have become more decentralised. DSOs now find themselves at the centre of change, operating the grid which all these new players – producers and prosumers – want to connect to and use. The challenge is for DSOs to enable and facilitate change, rather than becoming a bottleneck. In 2018 the DSO Chair organised two workshops to discuss topical issues facing the future of DSOs: (1) energy communities and (2) regulatory sandboxes. Despite being selected independently of each other, these two topics turned out to be interrelated.