• A SWOT analysis of the Belgian generation adequacy

      Buijs, P.; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (2007)
    • A wind of change is blowing through the power grid

      Meeus, Leonardo; Dobbeni, Daniel (2015)
      “Unlike many other sectors, power systems – and electricity grids in particular – were a model of stability and predictability; this is no more the case!” says Daniel Dobbeni, the chair of the Vlerick Energy Centre. “This industry was and still is also highly diverse,” adds Prof. Leonardo Meeus. “16 companies manage 70% of global electricity demand. 41 companies manage 100% of the electricity demand in Europe. The distinction between a transmission grid and a distribution grid for transporting electricity is 70,000 volts in Belgium, which is just defined by regulations. There are more than 2,300 distribution grid companies in Europe, the smallest of which has only one employee.” This energy sector is now facing all kinds of new challenges as well as opportunities. The liberalisation of the power market has not only undermined stability, but triggered an unstoppable acceleration process. Of all the new trends and uncertainties in the market, there are four that could genuinely cause a fundamental revolution in the sector.
    • Achieving learning potentials in an educational simulation game for trading and generating electrical energy

      Delarue, Erik; Laga, L.; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie; D'haeseleer, William (International Journal of Engineering Education, 2011)
      This paper presents and motivates the development of a techno-economic education package, consisting of two simulation games, to simulate both the trading and the generation of electricity in a liberalized market. Six attributes (storytelling; players as problem solvers and explorers; feedback; challenges that fit the student characteristics; competition; appropriate graphics and sounds) are relevant in order for simulation games to achieve their learning potentials. These attributes are identified within both developed simulation games.
    • Alliander: Power to the people (A)

      Debruyne, Marion; Meeus, Leonardo; Hadush, Samson Yemane (2017)
      This is part of a case series. The aim of this three part teaching case is to stimulate discussion on how companies can adopt new business models to survive sector-wide transitions by taking the perspective of energy network companies which often operate under a highly regulated environment.
    • Alliander: Power to the people (B)

      Debruyne, Marion; Meeus, Leonardo; Hadush, Samson Yemane (2017)
      This is part of a case series. The aim of this three part teaching case is to stimulate discussion on how companies can adopt new business models to survive sector-wide transitions by taking the perspective of energy network companies which often operate under a highly regulated environment.
    • Alliander: Power to the people (C)

      Debruyne, Marion; Meeus, Leonardo; Hadush, Samson Yemane (2017)
      This is part of a case series. The aim of this three part teaching case is to stimulate discussion on how companies can adopt new business models to survive sector-wide transitions by taking the perspective of energy network companies which often operate under a highly regulated environment.
    • An economic analysis of used electric vehicle batteries integrated into commercial building microgrids

      Beer, Sebastian; Gomez, D.; Dallinger, D.; Momber, Ilan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy (IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids, 2012)
    • Application of EU competition law in the electricity sector

      Vandezande, Leen; Meeus, Leonardo; Delvaux, Bram; Van Calster, Geert; Belmans, Ronnie (2006)
    • Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050

      Meeus, Leonardo (European Energy Journal, 2012)
      What is the European energy strategy for 2050? How different is it from the 2020 energy strategy? What are the technology options? What are the policy options? The European Commission provided a first answer to these questions in its Energy Roadmap 2050. This article gives an appraisal of that answer based on the recommendations we made during the preparation of the roadmap.
    • Assessment of a market coupling implementation based on price differences

      Cole, S.; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (2006)
      Eager to test the hypothesis that the crisis of 2008 exerted significant impact on the way companies manage their IT, we invited a selections of high-profile companies to participate in a study. We targeted companies that were seriously hit by the crisis but nevertheless were displaying best practices in managing their IT against this background. We interviewed eighteen CIOs and ten of the CFOs of those same companies about the way they were dealing with IT management in the current crisis.
    • Assessment of cost-benefit analysis for offshore electricity infrastructure development

      Bhagwat, Pradyumna; Schittekatte, Tim; Keyaerts, Nico; Meeus, Leonardo (2017)
      The application of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for offshore electricity infrastructure projects with a pan-European impact is discussed. An analytical framework for the evaluation of CBA methodologies is presented. The framework is then applied to assess the CBAs of three offshore infrastructure projects (EWIC, COBRAcable and ISLES). Overall, the CBAs assessed already comply with several dimensions of the analytical framework. However, based on this assessment it is found that scope for improvement in quality exists in three areas namely, in considering project interactions, in dealing with uncertainty and in making the results between CBAs comparable by ensuring full monetisation. Furthermore, the research also confirms the view that a common harmonised CBA methodology is essential for selection of PCIs.
    • Assessment of the implementation of cross-border balancing trade between Belgium and the Netherlands

      Vandezande, Leen; Saguan, Marcelo; Meeus, Leonardo; Glachant, Jean-Michel; Belmans, Ronnie (2009)
    • Asymmetry of information and demand response incentives in energy markets

      Ramos, Ariana; De Jonghe, Cedric; Six, Daan; Belmans, Ronnie (2013)
      The price set in electricity markets is given by the intersection of supply and demand during a given time period. The demand-side has traditionally been a price taker while the supply-side actively adjusts the output of the market clearing unit to fluctuations in consumption. Currently, there is a transition toward active demand participation that can adequately respond to market conditions. However, private knowledge of demand adjustments, such as the impact of modifying behavior or the availability to do so, creates asymmetry of information between the active supply side and the passive demand. This paper proposes a revelation mechanism that will prompt the demand-side to choose the best option for themselves among a menu of incentives. Rational behavior of consumers implies that demand will only shift when the benefit of doing so is higher than the costs of modifying consumption patterns. Given differences among demand participants and the objectives of the market operator, an analysis of the rationale of each market agent shows the feasible options for demand incentives. This study enables the design of appropriate market mechanisms aimed to discover customer categories and determine the adequate incentives for each case.
    • Block order restrictions in combinatorial electric energy auctions

      Meeus, Leonardo; Verhaegen, K.; Belmans, Ronnie (European Journal of Operational Research, 2009)
      In Europe, the auctions organized by “power exchanges” one day ahead of delivery are multi-unit, double-sided, uniformly priced combinatorial auctions. Generators, retailers, large consumers and traders participate at the demand as well as at the supply side, depending or whether they are short or long in electric energy. Because generators face nonconvex costs, in particular startup costs and minimum run levels, the exchanges allow "block orders" that are allor-nothing orders of a given amount of electric energy in multiple consecutive hours, while the standard order consists of an amount for a single hour that can be curtailed. All exchanges restrict the size (MWh/h), the type (span in terms of hours) or the number (per participant per day) of blocks that can be introduced. This paper discusses the rationale of block order restrictions. Based on simulations with representative scenarios, it is argued that the restrictions could be relaxed, which some exchanges have already started doing.
    • Congestion management in a market environment

      Purchala, K.; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (2005)
    • Cost benefit analysis in the context of the Energy Infrastructure Package

      Meeus, Leonardo; von der Fehr, Nils-Henrik M; Azevedo, Isabel; He, X.; Olmos, L.; Glachant, Jean-Michel (2013)
      Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) has proven to be a useful tool to support the economic appraisal of important projects in many sectors. In the energy domain, a single CBA method has been proposed at EU level to evaluate and compare electricity transmission and storage projects from different countries, which is unprecedented anywhere in the world. - The objective of the 10th report of THINK has been to advise the European Commission (DG Energy) on the development of this method in the context of the Energy Infrastructure Package. This brief is derived from that report. We provide recommendations for the scope of the analysis as well as the calculation of the net benefit. We also discuss how the method can be used to rank projects. - Regarding the scope of the analysis, our recommendations are: (1) interaction between projects must be taken into account in the project and baseline definition; (2) data consistency and quality should be ensured; (3) the conventional time horizon is 20-25 years; (4) CBA should concentrate on a reduced list of effects and those should be monetized; and (5) distributional concerns should not be addressed in the calculation of net benefits. - Regarding the calculation of the net benefit, our recommendations are: (6) infrastructure costs need to be disaggregated; (7) the model used to monetize the production cost savings and gross consumer surplus needs to be explicitly stated; (8) a common discount factor should be used for all projects; and (9) a stochastic approach that is consistent with the Energy Roadmap 2050 should be used to address uncertainty. - Regarding the ranking of projects, our recommendation is: (10) the ranking should be primarily based on the monetized net benefit. - ENTSO-E has already proposed a draft method for electricity projects. We will analyse to what extent this method is in line with our recommendations and will conclude that it is an important step in the right direction. However, improvements could still be made, as proposed in this brief.
    • Cross-border cost allocation: application of beneficiary pays principle to electricity transmission investments

      Hadush, Samson Yemane (2014)
      Massive electricity transmission investments are needed to achieve the energy and climate policy objectives of the European Union. The alignment of national and European interests remains the key challenge behind the realization of these investments. This thesis contributes to the design of efficient cross-border cost allocation solution as one of the regulatory tools that can play a significant role in aligning these interests. Trends in practice indicate the application of beneficiary pays principle to solve the cost allocation problem. Within the academic circle, this has been the long standing core principle of solving cost allocation problems. However, its application to cross-border electricity transmission investments with a strong national decision-making power is not widely studied. This thesis reviews various cost allocation methods to check their suitability to apply this principle. The findings indicate that these methods leave open questions regarding which benefit indicators to use for allocating the investment cost and how compensation issues are handled. Therefore, a framework to apply the beneficiary pays principle is required. Introducing transmission investments from a welfare analysis perspective, the thesis develops a framework to apply the beneficiary pays principle to solve the cost allocation problem. An important element of this framework is the use of congestion revenue as part of the solution. The design involves using congestion revenue in a compensation logic to ensure voluntary cooperation among participating countries. The designed framework is then applied in the context of two important developments in transmission investments in Europe: Projects of Common Interest (PCI) and offshore wind interconnection projects. The results show that the framework can help align national and European interests in projects with European relevance. Moreover, important implementation issues are identified.