• It is time for justice: How time changes what weknow about justice judgments and justice effects

      Fortin, Marion; Conjuharenco, Irina; Patient, David; German, Hayley (Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2016)
      Organizational justice is an important determinant of workplace attitudes, decisions, and behaviors. However,understanding workplace fairness requires not only examining what happens but also when it happens, interms of justice events, perceptions, and reactions. We organize and discussfindings from 194 justice articleswith temporal aspects, selected from over a thousand empirical justice articles. By examining temporalaspects, ourfindings enrich and sometimes challenge the answers to three key questions in the organizationaljustice literature relating to (i) when individuals pay attention to fairness, including specific facets, (ii) howfairness judgments form and evolve, and (iii) how reactions to perceived (in)justice unfold. Our review iden-tifies promising avenues for empirical work and emphasizes the importance of developing temporal theoriesof justice.
    • Linking Belgian employee performance management system characteristics with performance management system effectiveness: exploring the mediating role of fairness

      Dewettinck, Koen; van Dijk, Hans (International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2013)
      Based on expectancy theory, goal-setting theory and control theory, we propose a model in which perceived fairness mediates the relationship between characteristics of employee performance management (PM) systems and their perceived effectiveness by employees. PM system characteristics we propose are the frequency and length of formal reviews, the frequency of informal reviews and feedback, whether the formal conversation focused on evaluation or development and finally the degree of participation. The model was tested on a cross-industry sample of 3192 employees in Belgium. The measurement and structural models were simultaneously tested using structural equation modeling, and we used a bootstrapping approach to test the mediation hypothesis. Our findings indicate that performance review focus and employee participation strongly relate to perceptions of appraisal fairness and PM system effectiveness and that the frequency of informal performance reviews is stronger related to PM system effectiveness than the frequency of formal performance reviews. This suggests that the manifest expressions of PM have more impact on PM system effectiveness rather than the more latent characteristics of PM systems. The findings advance research to the role and functionality of PM systems by showing that (a) the manner in which PM systems are shaped and executed is of fundamental importance for their effectiveness, (b) fairness partially mediates the relationship between PM system characteristics and their effectiveness and (c) the three motivational theories appear useful for understanding the consequences of PM practices on individual employees.
    • Pitfalls of administering justice in an inconsistent world: Some reflections on the consistency rule

      Patient, David (Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2011)
      The unique legal context investigated by Stein, Steinley, and Cropanzano (this issue) highlights important challenges facing decision makers charged with administering justice in turbulent environments. First, rules may need to be adapted to new information and changed circumstances. Second, consistency over time can compete with altruistic motives, moral convictions, and other important principles. Third, decisionmakers may face demands from multiple audiences to re‐interpret a rule in ways that are harsher, more lenient, or otherwise different than previously warranted. Since managers in other organizational settings can also face strong pressures to change over time how they interpret and apply rules, the legal context highlights important aspects of fairness that can compete with consistency over time, and that merit further investigation
    • Seeing the forest or the trees of organizational justice: Effects of temporal perspective on employee concerns about unfair treatment at work

      Cojuharenco, Irina; Patient, David; Bashshur, Michael (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2011)
      What events do employees recall or anticipate when they think of past or future unfair treatment at work? We propose that an employee’s temporal perspective can change the salience of different types of injustice through its effect on cognitions about employment. Study 1 used a survey in which employee temporal focus was measured as an individual difference. Whereas greater levels of future focus related positively to concerns about distributive injustice, greater levels of present focus related positively to concerns about interactional injustice. In Study 2, an experimental design focused employee attention on timeframes that differed in temporal orientation and temporal distance. Whereas distributive injustice was more salient when future (versus past) orientation was induced, interactional injustice was more salient when past orientation was induced and at less temporal distance. Study 3 showed that the mechanism underlying the effect of employee temporal perspective is abstract versus concrete cognitions about employment.
    • The “When” of justice events and why it matters

      Patient, David; Cojuharenco, Irina; Fortin, Marion (2015)
      This chapter reviews research and theory pertaining to the effect of temporal characteristics of events on perceptions of and reactions to organizational justice. In order to set the context for empirical findings, we first review dynamic aspects of classical and more recent justice theories. We then review findings on several temporal aspects of justice events, including dynamic features (timing, duration of event, and frequency) and temporal perspective (distance, orientation, and scale). Maintaining our focus on specific events, we conclude the chapter by proposing theoretical and empirical avenues for including time in future investigation of organizational justice.