• Decarbonizing the European electric power sector by 2050: A tale of three studies

      Delarue, Erik; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie; D'haeseleer, William; Glachant, Jean-Michel (2011)
      If Europe is serious about climate change, it has to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, thereby effectively going to a (near-) zero carbon energy and thus, electricity system. The European Climate Foundation, Eurelectric, and the International Energy Agency have consequently published a study elaborating on the final goal of this transition. The studies project scenarios of how such a (near-) zero electricity system would look like and provide recommendations on the policies needed to guide the transition. In this paper, we observe that these studies tell a tale with many similarities. In spite of increased energy efficiency, the electricity demand is projected to increase substantially, with up to 50% from today towards 2050, due to shifts from other sectors towards electricity. This demand will be supplied by a minimum of 40% electricity generation by RES, with the remainder being filled up with nuclear and fossils with CCS. The importance of grid reinforcement, expansion, and planning in this context is emphasized in all three studies. While all three studies further recommend relying on the EU ETS for the transition, the European Climate Foundation and the International Energy Agency consider continuing with targets for RES in combination with a more harmonized EU RES support scheme.
    • Developing a Smart Meter Sourcing Strategy at Eandis

      Varganova, Olga; Samii, Behzad (2017)
    • Development of a framework for well performing RES-E supporting measures

      De Jonghe, Cedric; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (2008)
    • Development of balancing in the internal electricity market in Europe

      Verhaegen, K.; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (2006)
    • Distribution network tariffs: Fairness of pricing systems in Europe

      Verhaegen, K.; Meeus, Leonardo; Vandezande, Leen; Belmans, Ronnie (2006)
      Marketers often use salient stimuli to draw consumers' attention to a specific brand in the hope that a selective focus on the brand increases the sales of this brand. However, previous studies are inconsistent concerning the impact that selectively focusing on a specific brand has on final brand choice. To offer an explanation for these inconsistent results, this paper introduces decision involvement as a moderator of the relation between selective focus and attitude–decision consistency. Two studies indicate that selectively focusing on a not preferred alternative indeed alters choice decisions, but only when decision involvement is low. Study 1 further shows that this interaction effect between selective focus and involvement takes place in the selection rather than the brand consideration stage. By introducing level of processing along with decision involvement, Study 2 shows that the interaction effect emerges even in limited processing conditions. The study also reconciles different explanations for the negative effect of selective focus on attitude–behavior consistency. Selectively focusing on a not preferred choice option when consumers are low involved and use limited processing seems to lead to inconsistent choices because of an increased accessibility of the focal option, whereas selective focus on a not preferred option when consumers are low involved and use deep processing lead to inconsistent choices because of attitude polarization. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Does more international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market

      Küpper, Gerd; Delarue, Erik; Delvaux, Bram; Meeus, Leonardo; Bekaert, David; Willems, Bert; Proost, Stef; D'haeseleer, William; Deketelaere, Kurt; Belmans, Ronnie (The Electricity Journal, 2009)
      From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling regional markets can increase competition. That suggests it may not be appropriate to assess market concentration using national market shares.
    • DSO-TSO cooperation issues & solutions for distribution grid congestion management

      Hadush, Samson Yemane; Meeus, Leonardo (2017)
      The role of DSOs is evolving due to the increasing penetration of intermittent and distributed energy resources in the distribution system. On the one hand, TSOs are accessing flexibility resources connected to the distribution grid. On the other hand, DSOs are actively managing distribution grid congestion, moving away from the conventional fit and forget approach. As a result, the need for DSO-TSO cooperation has become increasingly important. In this study, we first discuss market and grid operation issues related to different system states and the corresponding congestion management approaches. Second, we discuss possible solutions that are inspired by inter-TSO cooperation solutions as well as solutions that are being adopted by DSOs. Our findings show that the issues are rather similar both at transmission and distribution level; however, the need for cooperation and the solutions will depend on where structural congestion will occur and which borders will be managed.
    • DSO-TSO cooperation issues and solutions for distribution grid congestion management

      Hadush, Samson Yemane; Meeus, Leonardo (Energy Policy, 2018)
      The role of DSOs is evolving due to the increasing penetration of intermittent and distributed energy resources in the distribution system. On the one hand, TSOs are accessing flexibility resources connected to the distribution grid. On the other hand, DSOs are actively managing distribution grid congestion, moving away from the conventional fit and forget approach. As a result, the need for DSO-TSO cooperation has become increasingly important. In this study, we first discuss market and grid operation issues related to different system states and the corresponding congestion management approaches, in the context of the European electricity market design and regulation. Second, we discuss viable solutions that are inspired by inter-TSO cooperation solutions as well as solutions that are being adopted by DSOs. Our findings show that the issues are rather similar both at transmission and distribution level; however, the need for cooperation and the solutions will depend on where structural congestion will occur and which borders will be managed. We also note that cooperation between DSOs as well as between DSOs and microgrids could become more important with the development of local energy markets in the long term.
    • Eandis: Financing the rollout of smart meters in a regulated environment

      Roodhooft, Filip; Momber, Ilan; Meeus, Leonardo; Hadush, Samson Yemane (2019)
      n 2014, Eandis System Operator CVBA (Eandis), a low- and medium-voltage power distribution system operator (DSO) in Belgium, had an ambitious plan for investing in a smart metering infrastructure, but the regulatory context was uncertain. The company had been operating in a regulated monopoly characterized by a cost-plus pricing regime. The regime allowed the company to recover its costs through the tariffs it charged grid users for access to the electricity distribution network. In recent years, the regime had motivated the company to invest in infrastructure; however, the cost-plus regime was about to be replaced by a new type of regulation based on incentives and the DSO's performance. Under the new regulation, DSOs could propose investments to the regulator, who then approved the investments based on a cost-benefit analysis. In this context, Eandis must decide whether to continue with its plan to invest in smart metering and, if so, how to structure the investment to appeal to the equity investors.
    • Electric vehicles and DSOs: working towards a joint future?

      Broeckx, Saskia; Ramos, Ariana; Meeus, Leonardo (2020)
      The discussion on the network integration of electric vehicles is reminiscent of that on the integration of intermittent renewables, such as solar and wind energy and other alternative sources, about ten years ago. Whenever radically new technologies gain traction, they may have a significant impact on the existing system. But whereas ten years ago any calls for early impact assessment were met with scepticism, the sector now seems to have learned its lesson. Although demand for electric vehicles is growing, mainstream adoption is still far from being achieved. Nevertheless, DSOs and regulators are already seriously considering the challenges ahead. After all, the mobility landscape may change faster than currently expected and they feel it is better to be prepared than to be caught out. On 12 December 2019, the DSO Chair organised a workshop to discuss challenges and issues related to the demand-side integration of electric vehicles into the electricity distribution network. Prior to the workshop we interviewed key stakeholders and participants, as well as several experts, to gather background information as a basis for discussion. This white paper provides a round-up of the findings and insights as well as suggesting areas for further exploration.
    • Electricity from renewable energy sources - what target are we aiming for?

      Verhaegen, K.; Meeus, Leonardo; Delvaux, Bram; Belmans, Ronnie (2006)
      People's self-regulatory focus may determine the effectiveness of stop-smoking campaigns. An experiment with 226 young smokers investigated the persuasiveness of different emotional appeals for different self-regulatory foci. A congruency effect emerges for attitude toward the advertisement and behavioral intentions: Young smokers with a promotion focus are more persuaded by sadness–joy than fear–relief campaigns, and the opposite is true for those with a prevention focus. As predicted by the regulatory relevancy principle, ad involvement mediates this effect.
    • Electricity market integration in Europe

      Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (2008)
      of students and employees (n = 300) and from an equivalent South-African sample (n = 246).
    • Electricity market integration in Europe

      Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie (Revue-E, 2008)
      Europe is preparing for a third wave of legislation to further reform electricity markets. The energy sector inquiry conducted in preparation of this third energy package concluded that there is lack of market integration. Even though this is true, it is important to put this in perspective. For the moment, electricity markets in Europe are indeed not the most harmonized or fine-tuned of the world. However, in some regions promising initiatives have already been launched and even when only integrated regionally, these markets will be the largest in the world, which indicates how ambitious the target of a single electricity market for Europe really is
    • Electricity network regulation in the EU : The challenges ahead‎ for transmission and distribution

      2018
      The UK model of incentive regulation of power grids was at one time the most advanced, and elements of it were adopted throughout the EU. This model worked well, particularly in the context of limited investment and innovation, a single and strong regulatory authority, and limited coordination between foreign grid operators. This enlightening book shows that since 2010 the whole context has changed and regulation has had to catch-up and evolve. The EU is entering a wave of investment, and an era of new services and innovation which has created growing tensions between national regulatory authorities in terms of coordinating technical standards and distribution systems. This is being played out against an increasingly disruptive backdrop of digitzation, new market platforms and novel business models.
    • Electricity produced from renewable energy sources - what target are we aiming for?

      Verhaegen, K.; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie; Delvaux, Bram (Energy Policy, 2007)
      In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter "EC") formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter "RES-E"). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner.
    • Emerging regulatory practice for new business related to distribution grids

      Meeus, Leonardo; Hadush, Samson Yemane (2016)
      Highlights: Activities related to new businesses, such as market facilitation (e.g. data hub operation), electrical storage, and electric vehicle- charging infrastructure are grey areas in regulation; In these grey areas, there is potential for a market approach, but there are also conditions which can prompt the involvement of DSOs; By taking stock of the emerging regulatory practice, we have identified the main elements that regulators need to consider when moving into these grey areas; If the approach is market based, the regulator needs to design the market; and check whether there is a need to correct market failures. To involve the DSOs is one way, but not the only way, to correct the market failures for new businesses; If the approach is to engage with the DSOs, the role of the regulator is to define the scope of the DSO involvement; to consider dedicated quality of service regulations for each of the new businesses that the DSO is involved in; and to make sure that the DSOs have sufficient incentives to innovate when investing in new businesses; The role of the DSOs in the energy value chain is diverging in Europe, which might be an issue for the ongoing market integration.
    • Enedis - Smart Market Maker, Not Market Take

      Viaene, Stijn; Momber, Ilan; Meeus, Leonardo (2017)