This paper develops a “Composite Index of the Creative Economy” (CICE) for the purpose of benchmarking an entity's (e.g., country or region) creative capacity as reflected by it's achievement in three dimensions: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Openness. To determine the weight each sub-dimension should contribute to the total value of the CICE, we introduce a novel method - endogenous weighting - that allows each entity to have its own unique set of “best” weights. This method addresses the issue of whether an entity's CICE score value reflects underlying capabilities (or lack thereof) or an “inappropriate” weighting of the underlying dimensions. Our endogenous weight method isolates achievement on the underlying dimensions as the source of a higher or lower CICE score value. In this paper we construct a value of the CICE for each of nine regions: Baden-Württemberg, Catalonia, Flanders, Lombardy, Maryland, Nord-Pas-De-Calais, Quebec, Rhône-Alpes, Scotland. A region's CICE value indicates its distance from “best practice” and can therefore be used to benchmark a region's creative capacity relative to other regions. In this respect, a focus of our analysis is the relative creative capacity of Flanders. We also examine the absolute and relative achievement of each region on each of the three underlying dimensions to identify specific areas of strength or weakness. The results indicate that Baden-Württemberg ranks highest in terms of creative capacity while Nord-Pas-De-Calais ranks lowest among the nine regions. Flanders ranks 3rd behind 2nd ranked Maryland. However, Flanders' rank masks that its CICE score value is 25% below that of Baden-Württemberg and 11% below that of Maryland, indicating a non-trivial gap in creative capacity between Flanders and “best practice.” On the three dimensions underlying creative capacity, Flanders ranks 2nd behind Baden-Württemberg on Innovation and Openness, but ranks 7th on Entrepreneurship (only ahead of Rhône-Alpes and Nord-Pas-De-Calais). Flanders' relatively poor ranking on Entrepreneurship reflects it's below average level of achievement on each of the three sub-dimensions of Entrepreneurship (ratio of newly established to existing firms, absence of a fear of failure, and venture capital as a share of GDP). This indicates that fostering and improving conditions for Entrepreneurship remains a challenge for Flanders compared to the other top ranked regions.
Sleuwaegen, Leo; Schep, K.; Hartog, G.; Commandeur, Harry (2003)
This paper examines the effect on the market valuation of large Dutch firms following the announcement of forming international strategic alliances (ISAs). These stock market effects are distinguished by type of alliance and country of origin of the partnering firms during the period 1985-1992. While ISAs are generally found to have a positive effect on firms' market value, strategically and culturally distant foreign partners generate a strong negative effect on a firm's market value. The results underscore the importance of conducting a strategic, operational and cultural audit of the partnering firms and the envisaged partnership. The audit needs to be taken as a starting point in developing the essential co-operation skills to make the alliance work and should become integrated within a comprehensive performance scorecard.
Significant reductions in barriers to international commerce since the mid-1970s have resulted in markets and industries becoming increasingly integrated across nations. A key consequence of industry globalization has been substantially increased levels of foreign competition in the markets of most nations, and in particular in the U.S. marketplace. The changes in competitive conditions facing firms as markets and industries become more globalized are significant economic phenomena that can be expected to impact corporate strategy in general, and corporate international diversification strategy in particular. Despite increasing global economic integration, the impact of industry globalization on corporate strategy is a question that has been largely overlooked in both the strategic management and international business literatures. This paper seeks to fill this important gap by examining the role of both environmental and firm specific factors in shaping a firm's international diversification strategy. Specifically, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding how industry globalization, foreign competition, and firm product diversification would be expected to influence a firm's strategic choice of its level of international diversification. We then empirically examine for the predicted impact and importance of these factors in a panel data set of U.S. firms from 1987 to 1993. Our study provides the first empirical examination and evidence that industry globalization and foreign-based competition are statistically significant factors explaining the increased international diversification of U.S. firms. Keywords: Corporate Strategy, Globalization, International Diversification
De Voldere, Isabelle; Sleuwaegen, Leo; Van Pelt, An; Veugelers, Reinhilde (2004)
This article traces the changing impact of national differences on the geographical and industry diversification strategy of leading firms in Europe in 1987-2000, a period of intensified European integration. The results indicate that, whereas country of origin had a significant effect at the beginning of the period, its impact has gradually diminished over time, with firms overall focusing resources on core activities but at the same time expanding production more internationally. However, some country differences do persist over time. Especially firms originating from Germany and Italy appear to be still significantly influenced by national differences.
Immigrant employment often concentrates in non-traded goods sectors and many immigrants have low inter-sectoral mobility. We consider these observed characteristics of immigrant employment for the question of how immigration affects a nation's pattern of production and trade. We model an economy producing three goods, one is non-traded. Domestic labor and capital are domestically mobile but internationally immobile. Some immigrant labor is specific to the non-traded sector. Our model indicates that the output and trade effects of immigration depend importantly on the sector and nature of immigrant employment. Empirical investigation of the model's predictions indicates that trade and immigration are complements. JEL classification: C23, D5, F16, F22, J61, O15 Keywords: trade, immigration, non-traded goods, specific factors, panel.
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