This paper investigates the impact of open innovation on national systems of innovation. The open innovation concept has become widely established among scholars and practitioners. However, an overview of its impact on national innovation systems is still lacking. Given that the innovating firm is at the core of national innovation systems, a better understanding of shifting innovation strategies at the firm level is of fundamental importance to the actions of policy-makers within the national innovation systems framework. Based on the main analytical approaches of national innovation systems and the current state of open innovation research, we argue that open innovation practices have at least three critical effects on national systems of innovation: (a) they reinforce its importance, (b) they improve its effectiveness, and (c) they diversify its networks.
Haspeslagh, Philippe; Slagmulder, Regine; Bloemhof, M. (2004)
The case describes the strategic planning process and performance management system implemented at DSM, a global chemical company. In particular, it describes how the company's value based business steering system is designed to create alignment between strategy formulation and execution through strategic value contracts. The case illustrates the performance management process in action at one of the business groups. It highlights managers' dilemma between continuing to pursue the current business strategy which is in line with corporate strategy, versus responding to the financial pressures exerted by the new value based management approach which would require a radical change in strategy. The case allows students to discuss the various elements of DSM's value based management (VBM)-inspired strategy and performance management processes, and how they impact one of the business groups' efforts to improve performance. The class can analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the company's approach to aligning its strategic planning and financial management processes by introducing strategic value contracts. Finally, the case shows how DSM distinguishes between performance indicators to monitor strategy implementation, and value drivers to measure economic value creation.
Cardinaels, Eddy; Roodhooft, Filip; Van Herck, Gustaaf (2004)
While many hospitals are under pressure to become more cost efficient, new costing systems such as Activity-based costing (ABC) may form a solution. However, the factors that may facilitate (or inhibit) cost system changes towards ABC have not yet been disentangled in a specific hospital context. Via a survey study of hospitals, we discovered that cost system development in hospitals could largely be explained by hospital specific factors. Issues such as the support of the medical parties towards cost system use, the awareness of problems with the existing legal cost system, the way hospitals and physicians arrange reimbursements, should be considered if hospitals refine their cost system. Conversely, ABC-adoption issues that were found to be crucial in other industries are less important. Apparently, installing a cost system requires a different approach in hospital settings. Especially, results suggest that hospital management should not underestimate the interest of the physician in the process of redesigning cost systems. Keywords: Activity Based Costing, Organizational Change, Cost Control, Hospital context
Cardinaels, Eddy; Roodhooft, Filip; Warlop, Luk; Van Herck, Gustaaf (2004)
This study experimentally investigates the value of cost report accuracy in an interactive pricing context. Market agents received feedback about their own profits via either a volume-based costing or a more accurate activity-based costing report. They also received a typical market report containing the performance of their rivals. While prior work suggested that market discipline and learning from salient competitors can overcome performance decrements due to inaccurate costing, our results imply that the corrective nature of market feedback depends on the decision maker's role in the competitive play. Compared to other participants, decision makers endowed with the role of a 'reputational' market leader are less effective in screening available market feedback because they predominantly fixate on their own cost data. Even when receiving biased volume-based costing, reputational leaders ignore valuable market signals of opponents having access to more accurate cost data. Consequently other market players can take advantage of them.
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