Financial theory, access to deal flow, selection, and monitoring skills are used to explain syndication in venture capital firms in six European countries. In contrast with U.S. findings, portfolio management motives are more important for syndication than individual deal management motives. Risk sharing, portfolio diversification, and access to larger deals are more important than selection and monitoring of deals. This holds for later stage and for early stage investors. Value adding is a stronger motive for syndication for early stage investors than for later stage investors, however. Nonlead investors join syndicates for the selection and value‐adding skills of the syndicate partners.
Devigne, David; Manigart, Sophie; Wright, Mike (2016)
Drawing upon an escalation of commitment framework, this study investigates how differences between cross-border and domestic venture capital investors in emotional, social, and institutional factors affect their decision to terminate an unsuccessful investment. We track the exit outcome of 1060 venture capital investments in 684 European technology companies. Results show that domestic investors have a high tendency to escalate their commitment to a failing course of action, while cross-border investors terminate their investments efficiently, even when investing through a local branch. This is explained by cross-border investors having a lower social and emotional involvement with the project and a lower embeddedness in the local economic and social environment, decreasing individual decision biases. Further, they are affected to a lower extent by normative pressures to further invest from their co-investment network. Local branches of cross-border investors are also shielded from escalation of commitment. We conjecture that their international investment committee acts as an organizational safeguard against individual decision biases. Domestic investors may hence benefit from mimicking the behavior of cross-border investors.
Meuleman, Miguel; Lockett, Andy; Manigart, Sophie; Wright, Mike (2010)
By combining insights from relational network theory and agency theory we identify the boundary conditions to the embeddedness approach to partner selection decisions in interfirm collaborations. Employing a longitudinal dataset comprising the investment syndicates for the population of UK management buyouts between 1993 and 2003, we find that relational embeddedness is less important for selecting partners when agency risks are low, allowing firms to expand their networks. Furthermore, reputational capital may act as a partial substitute for relational embeddedness, again permitting firms to expand their networks. Our findings enhance understanding of the boundary conditions associated with the relational network approach to partner selections and network behaviour.
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