Research on cultural differences in management has been facilitated and hindered by the existence of multiple models of national culture. In this paper we briefly review the most popular models of national culture, identify the convergences and divergences among them. We suggest that a clear need exists to seek convergence across the various models where it exists in ways that facilitate both research and meaningful cross-cultural comparisons. We seek such convergence by identifying five relative common themes that pervade the various models. Based on these themes, new country ratings are offered based on multiple evaluative strategies and tools.
This paper builds on prior cross-cultural research to explore the role of national culture in providing mechanisms to cope with uncertainty. The concept of uncertainty is critical to organization and management theories, and has been central in explaining the relationship between organizations and their environment. The cross-cultural literature suggests that people perceive and deal with uncertainty differently across cultures. This paper extends this literature by empirically testing the role of culture in providing managers with mechanisms to cope with uncertainty in Brazil and the United States. Results suggest that beliefs about control over the environment and rule orientation influence the choice of coping mechanisms employed across countries. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Key words: uncertainty, coping with uncertainty, uncertainty avoidance, national culture, content analysis, cross-cultural management
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