Modeling electricity storage to address challenges and opportunities of its applications for smart grids requires inter-temporal equalities to keep track of energy content over time. Prevalently, these constraints present crucial modeling elements as to what extent energy storage applications can enhance future electric power systems' sustainability, reliability, and efficiency. This paper presents a novel and improved mixed-integer linear problem (MILP) formulation for energy storage of plug-in (hybrid) electric vehicles (PEVs) for reserves in power system models. It is based on insights from the field of System Dynamics, in which complex interactions between different elements are studied by means of feedback loops as well as stocks, flows and co-flows. Generalized to a multi-bus system, this formulation includes improvements in the energy balance and surpasses shortcomings in the way existing literature deals with reserve constraints. Tested on the IEEE 14-bus system with realistic PEV mobility patterns, the deterministic results show changes in the scheduling of the units, often referred to as unit commitment (UC).
n 2014, Eandis System Operator CVBA (Eandis), a low- and medium-voltage power distribution system operator (DSO) in Belgium, had an ambitious plan for investing in a smart metering infrastructure, but the regulatory context was uncertain. The company had been operating in a regulated monopoly characterized by a cost-plus pricing regime. The regime allowed the company to recover its costs through the tariffs it charged grid users for access to the electricity distribution network. In recent years, the regime had motivated the company to invest in infrastructure; however, the cost-plus regime was about to be replaced by a new type of regulation based on incentives and the DSO's performance. Under the new regulation, DSOs could propose investments to the regulator, who then approved the investments based on a cost-benefit analysis. In this context, Eandis must decide whether to continue with its plan to invest in smart metering and, if so, how to structure the investment to appeal to the equity investors.
Traditional analysis of distribution grid user’s reaction to tariffs assumes a low price sensitivity and a lack of alternative technologies to grid connection. This is radically changing with two technology breakthroughs: (1) Photovoltaics (PV) enable domestic and commercial consumers to self-produce energy; (2) Batteries allow self-producers to set both their grid energy and capacity parameters. Contributing to the state of the art, the grid cost recovery problem is modelled as a non-cooperative game between consumers. In this game, the availability and costs of new technologies (such as PV and batteries) strategically interact with tariff structures. Four states of the world for user’s access to new technologies are distinguished and three tariff structures are evaluated. The assessed distribution network tariff structures are: energy volumetric charges with net-metering, energy volumetric charges for both injection and withdrawal, and capacity-based charges. Results show that the new distribution world -open by new technology choices for grid users- is highly interactive and threatens grid regulation not understanding it.
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