Ramos, Ariana; De Jonghe, Cedric; Six, Daan; Belmans, Ronnie (2013)
The price set in electricity markets is given by the intersection of supply and demand during a given time period. The demand-side has traditionally been a price taker while the supply-side actively adjusts the output of the market clearing unit to fluctuations in consumption. Currently, there is a transition toward active demand participation that can adequately respond to market conditions. However, private knowledge of demand adjustments, such as the impact of modifying behavior or the availability to do so, creates asymmetry of information between the active supply side and the passive demand. This paper proposes a revelation mechanism that will prompt the demand-side to choose the best option for themselves among a menu of incentives. Rational behavior of consumers implies that demand will only shift when the benefit of doing so is higher than the costs of modifying consumption patterns. Given differences among demand participants and the objectives of the market operator, an analysis of the rationale of each market agent shows the feasible options for demand incentives. This study enables the design of appropriate market mechanisms aimed to discover customer categories and determine the adequate incentives for each case.
In the transition towards a low-carbon future in Europe, cities' actions are of major importance due to the prominence of urbanization, both in terms of population and in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, we need city authorities to act, by using their competences as policy makers as well as energy users. However, cities are still not moving as fast as one might expect, indicating the need for additional incentives to prompt local action. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present an overview of external incentives that might prompt cities to act and to highlight good practices that could be used in future initiatives.
This paper first discusses how to evaluate the climate and energy performance of a city and how local authorities can contribute to its improvements. Moreover, it analyses the disincentives that local governments are confronted with, categorizing them as simple market failures, institutional failures and multi-agent failures. The paper then presents a survey of initiatives at national and EU levels to promote local action towards a low-carbon future; grouping them into tambourines, carrots and sticks. We focus on Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden because they are pioneering countries regarding energy policies for cities.
Nowadays, the European electricity systems are evolving towards a generation mix that is more decentralised, less predictable and less flexible to operate. In this context, additional flexibility is expected to be provided by the demand side. Thus, how to engage consumers to participate in demand response is becoming a pressing issue. In this paper, we provide an analytical framework to assess consumers' potential and willingness to participate in active demand response from a contract perspective. On that basis, we present policy recommendations to empower and protect consumers in their shift to active demand response participants.
This paper applies two experimental economics methods (i.e., agent-based modeling and laboratory experiment) to a market test suite that is based on a fictional European wholesale electricity market. Quantitative results of generators' strategic behavior in this market context are separated between generators played by human subjects (i.e., master students) in a laboratory experiment and generators represented by computational agents in an agent-based model. The behavior is measured through offers that students or agents make when participating in the electricity trading auction and the market outcomes under both methods are discussed in order to illustrate the difference between the behavior of human and computational agents. The paper also identifies the improvements that would need to be made to the market test suite to allow for a more conclusive comparison in future experiments.
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