This study takes an institutional perspective on spinning off ventures as a venue for commercialising research. The central question dealt with is the following: are the resource endowments of spin-outs at time of founding influenced by the way in which the overall technology transfer process is organised at the parent organisation? We have selected a research institute known for its international research excellence and with a track record in spinning off ventures: IMEC (Leuven, Belgium). We questioned all senior managers involved in technology transfer and the founders of the academic ventures set up between 1987 - 2002. The basic argument of the research is that changes in the internal institutional environment -- and the spin out policy in particular -- co-evolve with a changing overall tendency in the amount of resources endowed to the academic ventures. More specifically, we identify three generations of academic ventures displaying the main organisational changes in technology transfer policies pertaining to spin off companies. Keywords: Spin outs, Public Research Institute, Technology Transfer
The launch of the first product is an important event for start-ups, because it takes the new venture closer to growth, profitability and financial independence. However, entrepreneurship literature lacks theory and data on new product development and innovation speed. Integrating insights form new product development literature with resource-based theory, we construct a conceptual framework concerning the antecedents of innovation speed in start-ups. In particular, we argue that pre-founding R&D efforts and intangible assets such as team tenure, experience of founders, and collaborations with third parties are important for innovation speed. We collected a unique dataset on 99 research-based start-ups (RBSUs) and use an event-history approach to test our model. We find that RBSUs differ significantly in their starting conditions and that these differences have a significant effect on the time it takes to launch the first product. The impact of starting conditions on innovation speed differs however between software, medical-related, telecom and other technologies. Although intuition suggests that start-ups that are further in the product development cycle at founding launch their first product faster, we find that software firms starting with a beta-version experience slower product launch. Next, it is shown that team tenure and experience of founders leads to faster product launch. Contrary to expectations, alliances with other firms do not significantly affect innovation speed and collaborations with universities lead to longer development times. The insights of this study enhance our understanding of product development processes in start-ups and the differences between slow growers and fast growers. Keywords: Intangible assets, New Product Development and Start-Ups
Vandevelde, Anneke; Van Dierdonck, Roland; Clarysse, Bart; Debackere, Koenraad (2002)
There is limited empirical evidence to support the importance of design-manufacturing (DM) integration on the performance of new product development projects. This article focuses on the impact of integration processes and their outcomes on multidimensional project performance. When considering integration as interaction processes, we find that the degree of interaction is positively correlated with respect for time and prestige. If one succeeds in smoothing the production start-up, which is an outcome of integration, a better respect for time, budget and technical specifications is realized. Finally, we provide some insights into the perceived room to improve integration. Even though perceptions do not always correspond with reality, it is interesting to examine them since product development decisions are often taken in response to an individual's perceptions (Kleinschmidt & Cooper, 1995).
Vandevelde, Anneke; Van Dierdonck, Roland; Clarysse, Bart (2002)
The aim of this paper was to achieve a better understanding of the specific role of physical prototyping in the product development process. Data from a survey of 25 companies revealed that the direct effect of prototyping on multidimensional project performance is limited. However, physical prototyping appears to affect process and product concept characteristics. More particularly, it improves interdisciplinary communication, supports a concurrent, time-oriented approach and collaboration in balanced teams. It enhances the project leader's championing, and increases the support of senior management and product quality. Finally, physical prototyping indirectly affects project performance via these modified characteristics.
Vandevelde, Anneke; Van Dierdonck, Roland; Clarysse, Bart (2002)
This article describes the major barriers across the design-manufacturing interface and examines ways to overcome them to achieve a smooth production start-up. An integration model reveals that formalization facilitates a smooth production start-up. Independent of the degree of formalization during the early development stages, a formal approach is preferred when the new product is introduced into production. Another facilitating factor is the empathy from design towards manufacturing, which can be stimulated by managerial actions. Although the complexity and newness of product and technology hinder a smooth production start-up, their effect seems to vanish by introducing formalization and by striving for a design team that has empathy towards manufacturing.
We examine the effects of two forms of capital, i.e. human capital and social capital, on innovation at the country level. We use secondary data from the World Development Report on a country's overall human development to test for a relationship between human capital and innovation. We also use previous conceptualisations of social capital as comprising trust, associational activity, and norms of civic behaviour to test for relationships between these indicators of social capital and innovation using data from the World Values Survey. Unlike most previous studies that examined human and social capital within a given country, we develop and empirically test a theoretically grounded model that relates human and social capital to innovation at the societal level across 59 different countries, thus providing a more global view of the role of these two forms of capital in generating value. We find strong support for the positive relationship between human capital and innovation and partial support for the positive effect of trust and associational activity on innovation. However, contrary to our prediction, we find a negative relationship between norms of civic behaviour and one of our innovation measures. Keywords: social capital, human capital, innovation, cross-country comparison
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.