Reusen, Evelien; Stouthuysen, Kristof; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra; Slabbinck, Hendrik (2013)
There are important advantages to including reversed items in questionnaires (e.g., control of acquiescence, disruption of nonsubstantive responding, better coverage of the domain of content of a construct), but reversed items can also lead to measurement problems (e.g., low measure reliability, complex factor structures). The authors advocate the continued use of reversed items in measurement instruments but also argue that they should be used with caution. To help researchers improve their scale construction practices, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the literature on reversed and negated items and offer recommendations about their use in questionnaires. The theoretical discussion is supplemented with data on 1330 items from measurement scales that have appeared in Journal of Marketing Research and Journal of Consumer Research.
Cools, Martine; Stouthuysen, Kristof; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra (2013)
Organizational identification works on the cognitive, affective, and evaluative levels. The present study, like previous research, conceptualizes identification as a multidimensional concept. We test a model of identification developed in experimental settings using an empirical study carried out in three Romanian organizations. We investigate relevant antecedents and consequences of cognitive, affective, and evaluative identification for organizations. The findings shed light on the conditions in which the impact of cognitive identification on organizational outcomes is mediated by the affective attachment to the organization. They also indicate that evaluative identification has a smaller impact in organizational settings than experimental studies have previously shown, contradicting predictions of the self-enhancement hypothesis. Based on these findings, we draw out the practical implications for effective strategies targeting organizational identification enhancement.
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