Simulation has played an important role in project-management studies of the last decades, but in order for them to produce practical results, a realistic distribution model for activity durations is indispensable. The construction industry often has needed historical records of project executions, to serve as inputs to the distribution models, but a clearly outlined calibration procedure is not always readily available, nor are their results readily interpretable. This study seeks to illustrate how data from the construction industry can be used to derive realistic input distributions. Therefore, the Parkinson simulation model with a lognormal core is applied to a large empirical dataset from the literature and the results are described. From a discussion of these results, an empirical classification of project executions is presented. Three possible uses are presented for the calibration procedure and the classification in project management simulation studies. These were validated using a case study of a construction company.
When scheduling projects under resource constraints, assumptions are typically made with respect to the resource availability. In resource scheduling problems important assumptions are made with respect to the resource requirements. As projects are typically labour intensive, the underlying (personnel) resource scheduling problems tend to be complex due to different rules and regulations. In this paper, we aim to integrate these two interrelated scheduling problems to minimise the overall cost. For that purpose, we propose an exact algorithm for the project staffing with resource scheduling constraints. Detailed computational experiments are presented to evaluate different branching rules and pruning strategies and to compare the proposed procedure with other optimisation techniques.
Osei-Frimpong, K.; Wilson, A.; Lemke, Fred (Elsevier, 2018)
The healthcare sector has undergone a number of transformations in recent years, partly due to recent advances in technology. This triggered our study to examine patients' desire to seek health information largely driven by increased access via the Internet and the cumulative impacts on value co-creation. We employed a sequential exploratory design involving a phenomenological approach in the qualitative phase, followed by a quantitative survey design to further our understanding of the influence of technology in co-creating value in healthcare at the micro level. Advances in technology have empowered patients to be informed, which enabled them to play an active role in clinical encounters with the doctor. The findings suggest pre-encounter information search impacts positively on improved service engagement and commitment to compliance with medical instructions. It does this by shaping the nature of interactions, enhancing provider-patient orientation, and increasing their involvement in a shared decision-making process. From a theoretical perspective, our study integrates multiple research perspectives (e.g., access to information, online information seeking and knowledge creation, healthcare consultation models, etc.) and extends research on patient integration, participation, and co-creation of value. The conceptualization of value co-creation activities in this study suggests a need for service providers to adopt delivery approaches that would effectively integrate patient resources to co-create value.
In this paper, a real-life project database is created, outranking the existing empirical databases from project management literature in both size and diversity. To ensure the quality of the added project data, a database construction and evaluation framework based on the so-called project cards is developed. These project cards incorporate the concepts of dynamic scheduling and introduce two novel evaluation measures for the authenticity of project data. Furthermore, an overview of the constructed database leads to statements on the difference between planned and actual project performance and on the earned value management (EVM) forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the database is publicly available and can thus become the basis for many future studies related to project management, of which a few are suggested in this paper. To further support these studies, the database will continuously be extended utilizing the project cards. Furthermore, the project cards can also serve didactical purposes.
Sels, Veronique; Coelho, José; Dias, Antonio Manuel; Vanhoucke, Mario (2015)
We consider the problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a number of unrelated parallel machines in order to minimize the makespan. We develop three heuristic approaches, i.e., a genetic algorithm, a tabu search algorithm and a hybridization of these heuristics with a truncated branch-and-bound procedure. This hybridization is made in order to accelerate the search process to near-optimal solutions. The branch-and-bound procedure will check whether the solutions obtained by the meta-heuristics can be scheduled within a tight upper bound. We compare the performances of these heuristics on a standard dataset available in the literature. Moreover, the influence of the different heuristic parameters is examined as well. The computational experiments reveal that the hybrid heuristics are able to compete with the best known results from the literature.
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka; Standaert, Willem (Association for Information Systems, 2018)
The information systems research on generativity promises unprompted, innovative inputs from uncoordinated audiences, whose participation with heterogeneous technological resources generates diverse outputs and opens new possibilities. The question is how to perpetuate the openness on which the outputs of generativity rely. We advance, as a potential mechanism of generativity, the concept of digital probes, which leverage human and technological resources in hybrid digital and physical environments. The aesthetically rich probes challenge values, identities, and practices, cultivating emotional tensions that can reveal previously unexplored and unimagined possibilities, resulting in novel ideas, thoughts, and expressions. The new possibilities reveal what is hidden; reconfigure practices; cross-appropriate technological and social resources; and thereby further expand what can be experienced, viewed, and imagined. Further, the new possibilities draw new actors that again view things differently and seek different experiences, thus fueling emotional tensions that in turn open new possibilities, without settling them. We illustrate digital probes and their effects at Formula E. Formula E is a new motorsports venture that leveraged eSports, social media, crowdsourcing, and driverless cars in digital probes to reveal and examine previously unimagined possibilities of what the world of motorsport could be in the digital era. We end by exploring future research directions.
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