Recent Submissions

  • A genetic algorithm for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with alternative subgraphs using a boolean satisfiability solver

    Servranckx, Tom; Coelho, José; Vanhoucke, Mario (European Journal of Operational Research, 2024)
    This study evaluates a new solution approach for the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling with Alternative Subgraphs (RCPSP-AS) in case that complex relations (i.e. nested and linked alternatives) are considered. In the RCPSP-AS, the project activity structure is extended with alternative activity sequences. This implies that only a subset of all activities should be scheduled, which corresponds with a set of activities in the project network that model an alternative execution mode for a work package. Since only the selected activities should be scheduled, the RCPSP-AS comes down to a traditional RCPSP problem when the selection subproblem is solved. It is known that the RCPSP and, hence, its extension to the RCPSP-AS is NP-hard. Since similar scheduling and selection subproblems have already been successfully solved by satisfiability (SAT) solvers in the existing literature, we aim to test the performance of a GA-SAT approach that is derived from the literature and adjusted to be able to deal with the problem-specific constraints of the RCPSP-AS. Computational results on small- and large-scale instances (both artificial and empirical) show that the algorithm can compete with existing metaheuristic algorithms from the literature. Also, the performance is compared with an exact mathematical solver and learning behaviour is observed and analysed. This research again validates the broad applicability of SAT solvers as well as the need to search for better and more suited algorithms for the RCPSP-AS and its extensions.
  • Analysis of the impact of corrective actions for stochastic project networks

    Vaseghi, Forough; Martens, Annelies; Vanhoucke, Mario (European Journal of Operational Research, 2024)
    In project management, a project plan is constructed that assigns a planned start time to each project activity. Based on this plan, the total planned project duration and cost can be determined. However, during project execution, deviations from the plan are inevitable due to uncertainty and variability. When these deviations endanger the timely completion of projects, the project manager should take corrective actions to get the project back on track. In this study, corrective actions are modelled as modifications of the original activity duration distributions (i.e., reduced mean and/or standard deviation) to account for the uncertain nature of their impact. Further, an analytical procedure is developed to rank activities according to their expected impact on the project duration distribution when they are controlled by a corrective action. This activity ranking is used to determine the number of actions that should be taken and to select the set of activities that will be controlled. A computational experiment on a large set of project networks with varying network complexity and network structures has been conducted. These experiments have shown that taking actions on a relatively small subset of activities, rather than on the entire set of project activities, proves more efficient, when the subset of activities is carefully selected. More precisely, the efficiency of the corrective actions process depends on both the number of actions and the activity selection criterion (activity ranking).
  • Transformative privacy calculus: Conceptualizing the personalization-privacy paradox on social media

    Cloarec, Julien; Meyer-Waarden, Lars; Munzel, Andreas (Psychlogy & Marketing, 2024)
    The rapid evolution of digital marketing underscores a critical tension between personalization and privacy, exacerbated by advances in data technologies and artificial intelligence. This study delves into the personalization-privacy paradox, emphasizing the dichotomy of consumer behavior—desiring customized interactions while guarding personal data. We explore how happiness with the internet (HWI) influences users' willingness to disclose personal information on social media, employing social exchange theory as our conceptual framework. Our research develops and tests a conceptual model that investigates the psychological mechanisms driving information-sharing behaviors on social media, including the moderating roles of trust beliefs and information collection concerns. By examining the mediating effect of posting frequency on the relationship between HWI and information disclosure for personalization, our findings contribute to understanding the complex interplay between happiness, trust and privacy concerns, coined as transformative privacy calculus. Our study enriches social exchange and privacy calculus theories, providing valuable implications for marketers aiming to navigate the balance between personalization and privacy, suggesting strategies to enhance user engagement without compromising privacy standards.
  • Creators, multipliers, and lurkers: who contributes and who benefits at online review sites

    Munzel, Andreas; Kunz, Werner H. (Journal of Service Management, 2014)
    Purpose - As the internet has become an increasingly relevant communication and exchange platform, social interactions exist in multiple forms. The research aims to integrate a multitude of those interactions to understand who contributes and why different types of contributors generate and leverage social capital on online review sites. Design/methodology/approach - Based on the literature about social capital, social exchange theory, and transformative consumer research, the authors carried out a study of 693 contributors on a hotel review site. Content analysis and a latent profile analysis were used to research the contribution types and the underlying motives for generating and leveraging social capital. Findings - Through the integration of various customer-to-customer interactions, the results reveal a three-class structure of contributors on review sites. These three groups of individuals show distinct patterns in their preferred interaction activities and the underlying motives. Research limitations/implications - The authors develop the existing literature on transmission of electronic word-of-mouth messages and typologies of contributors. Future research should seek to expand the findings to additional industry and platform contexts and to support the findings through the inclusion of behavioral data. Originality/value - The research contributes to researchers and marketers in the field by empirically investigating who and why individuals engage in online social interactions. The authors expand upon the existing literature by highlighting the importance of social debt in anonymous online environments and by assessing a three-class structure of online contributors.
  • Attention aux faux avis! Investigations expérimentales sur les indicateurs contextuels facilitant la détection des avis trompeurs par les internautes

    Munzel, Andreas (Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 2015)
    Les individus se fient aux avis publiés sur Internet dans leur décision d’achat. Toutefois, la crédibilité des avis d’internautes est remise en cause suite à la croissance des pratiques frauduleuses des entreprises publiant de faux avis. Différents mécanismes qui aident les internautes à détecter les faux avis sont examinés dans trois études expérimentales. Les résultats confirment l’importance d’une activation d’un mode de protection ainsi que les effets de deux des mécanismes potentiels étudiés sur la crédibilité. Cette recherche contribue au champ des interactions en ligne par la mise en avant de l’importance des facteurs contextuels – plutôt que textuels – comme les certifications et la cohérence des avis émis dans le processus de détection des faux-avis par les internautes. Prix académique de la recherche en management, cat. Marketing, 2016.
  • Delight the experts, but never dissatisfy your customers! A multi-category study on the effects of online review source on intention to buy a new product

    Plotkina, Daria; Munzel, Andreas (Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2016)
    Online reviews are a pervasive form of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) that potentially accelerate—or slow down—the diffusion of recently launched services in the marketplace. While empirical research largely supports the effects of online reviews on attitudinal and behavioral outcomes, less is known about the impact the source of the review—i.e., if it comes from a peer consumer or an expert—has on the recipient. Two experiments that combine reviewer- (expert, consumer), service type- (mobile package, restaurant, car repair), consumer- (level of general innovativeness), and review-related (positive, negative) characteristics reveal a challenging interaction between the review’s source and its valence: while—compared to an established baseline—a positive expert review seems more effective in increasing the recipient's intention to purchase than a review by a peer consumer, a negative consumer review lowers the recipient's intentions to a larger extent than a negative expert review. We further find effects of the consumer's innovativeness and the service category across the experiments. Our research contributes to the topical and increasing body of empirical research on the effects of involved characteristics within online reviews across several product types.
  • Big data and firm performance: The roles of market-directed capabilities and business strategy

    Suoniemi, Samppa; Meyer-Waarden, Lars; Munzel, Andreas; Ricardo Zablah, Alex; Straub, Detmar (Information & Management, 2020)
    Despite being the object of much interest, deep insights regarding why and when investments in big data resources enhance firm performance are lacking in the literature. Building on the resource-based view (RBV) and data provided by 301 senior marketing managers, this study reveals that big data resources primarily improve firm performance by enhancing the market-directed capabilities of the firm. In addition, the data indicate that firms pursuing a differentiation rather than cost-leadership strategy gain most from big data resource investments and that such resources account for 13 % of the variance in the performance of firms pursuing a differentiation strategy.
  • Illusions of truth—Experimental insights into human and algorithmic detections of fake online reviews

    Plotkina, Daria; Munzel, Andreas; Pallud, Jessie (Journal of Business Research, 2020)
    The issue of fake online reviews is increasingly relevant due to the growing importance of online reviews to consumers and the growing frequency of deceptive corporate practices. It is, therefore, necessary to be able to detect fake online reviews. An experiment with 1041 respondents allowed us to create two pools of reviews (fake and truthful) and compare them for psycholinguistic deception cues. The resulting automated tool accounted for review valence and incentive and detected deceptive reviews with 81% accuracy. A follow-up experiment with 407 consumers showed that humans have only a 57% accuracy of detection, even when a deception mindset is activated with information on cues of fake online reviews. Therefore, micro-linguistic automated detection can be used to filter the content of reviewing websites to protect online users. Our independent analysis of reviewing websites confirms the presence of dubious content and, therefore, the need to introduce more sophisticated filtering approaches.
  • Finding meaning in contradiction on employee review sites: Effects of discrepant online reviews on job application intentions

    Könsgen, Raoul; Schaarschmidt, Mario; Ivens, Stefan; Munzel, Andreas (Journal of Interactive Marketing, 2018)
    Sharing experiences with peers through online reviews has amplified the impacts of individual articulations on the reputations of firms across many industries. With employee review sites, current and former employees share their positive and negative experiences with their company, which has become an increasingly important aspect for reputation management and for job seekers' decision-making on where to apply. In the present study, the effects of discrepant reviews (i.e., reviews with a high variance in company evaluations) are examined in the context of employer review sites. In particular, we investigate how review discrepancy, persuasion knowledge activation, and constructive company responses affect job seekers' trust in the company and the resulting application intentions. In our preliminary study, we analyzed a sample of 25,827 published company reviews on the German employee rating site The results revealed that high levels of discrepant reviews for the same company exist, thus underlining the need for additional studies. In our main study, a 2 (review discrepancy) × 2 (persuasion knowledge activation) × 2 (company response) between-subject-design experiment was conducted with 311 respondents. We find that high levels of discrepancies lead to increased intentions to avoid submitting applications to the focal company and reduced intentions to pursue employment. This study complements the research concerning online reputation by highlighting the relevance of discrepant reviews for job seekers' application intentions.
  • Getting by or getting ahead on social networking sites? The role of social capital in happiness and well-being

    Munzel, Andreas; Galan, Jean-Philippe; Meyer-Waarden, Lars (International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 2018)
    By March 2017, Facebook had more than 1.94 billion active users monthly. Even as firms increasingly invest in social media, however, businesses appear only moderately satisfied with the bottom line of such social commerce efforts. To assist future efforts in social commerce, this research builds on social capital theory to investigate the effects of individual social interactions on social networking sites (SNSs) on users’ happiness and well-being by examining how size and intimacy of the social network online and the mediating influence of two social capital facets, bonding and bridging, impact those outcomes. Among 2,116 Facebook users, intimacy and network size affect well-being, through social capital. The findings reveal the importance of getting ahead (i.e., bridging social capital) rather than getting by (i.e., bonding social capital) among SNS users who seek novel information and experiences. The results imply that social interactions through SNSs are valuable for individuals and firms, because they guide efforts in improving social capital—and bridging social capital in particular—to improve the individual’s well-being.
  • Assisting consumers in detecting fake reviews: The role of identity information disclosure and consensus

    Munzel, Andreas (Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2016)
    Current discussions in academia and in the press increase consumers’ awareness of potentially deceptive online reviews. The increasing practice of fake reviews posted online not only jeopardizes the credibility of review sites as important information sources for individuals but also endangers a valuable source of information for service providers. Two studies shed further light on the role of consensus and identity-related information in assisting consumers detect potentially faked reviews. In one preliminary study, a sample of 4826 rejected and 4881 published online reviews was analyzed to investigate the differences in the disclosure of author-related information such as name and age as well as star ratings across those reviews. In the main study, a 3 (identity disclosure) x 2 (consensus) x 2 (priming of fake reviews) experiment was carried out with 390 respondents. The results highlight the relevance of the review's consensus in relation to the overall rating of previous reviews and corroborate the results of the preliminary study from the perspective of an internet user: the value of the amount of available information on the review's author in assisting individuals detect potential fake reviews. This study complements research in computer science by highlighting the relevance of contextual—in addition to textual—indicators that assist internet users in detecting potentially deceptive online reviews.
  • The fairness of Human Resource Management

    Haines, Victor; Patient, David; Guerrero, Sylvie (Frontiers in Psychology, 2024)
    Although fairness is a pervasive and ongoing concern in organizations, the fairness of human resource management practices is often overlooked. This study examines how individual differences in justice sensitivity influence the extent to which human resource management practices are perceived to convey principles of organizational justice. Using a matching sample of 283 university students from three academic units in two countries, justice sensitivity was positively associated with subsequent assessments of the justice contents of 61 human resource management practices. The distinction between self-oriented and other-oriented justice sensitivities was helpful in determining perceptions of these human resource management practices and of a subset of pay-for-performance practices. The findings inform current research about the meanings borne by human resource management practices, and also increase understanding of entity judgment formation as an important aspect of systemic justice.
  • Success factors in new ventures: A meta-analysis

    Song, Michael; Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Van Der Bij, Hans; Halman, Johannes (Journal of Product Innovation Management, 2008)
    Technology entrepreneurship is key to economic development. New technology ventures (NTVs) can have positive effects on employment and could rejuvenate industries with disruptive technologies. However, NTVs have a limited survival rate. In our most recent empirical study of 11,259 NTVs established between 1991 and 2000 in the United States, we found that after four years only 36 percent, or 4,062, of companies with more than five full-time employees, had survived. After five years, the survival rate fell to 21.9 percent, leaving only 2,471 firms still in operation with more than five full-time employees. Thus, it is important to examine how new technology ventures can better survive. In the academic literature, a number of studies focus on success factors for NTVs. Unfortunately, empirical results are often controversial and fragmented. To get a more integrated picture of what factors lead to the success or failure of new technology ventures, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the success factors in NTVs. We culled the academic literature to collect data from existing empirical studies. Using Pearson correlations as effect size statistics, we conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the findings of 31 studies and identified the 24 most widely researched success factors for NTVs. After correcting for artifacts and sample size effects, we found that among the 24 possible success factors identified in the literature, 8 are homogeneous significant success factors for NTVs (i.e., they are homogeneous positive significant metafactors that are correlated to venture performance): (1) supply chain integration; (2) market scope; (3) firm age; (4) size of founding team; (5) financial resources; (6) founders' marketing experience; (7) founders' industry experience; and (8) existence of patent protection. Of the original 24 success factors, 5 were not significant: (1) founders' research and development (R&D) experience; (2) founders' experience with start-ups; (3) environmental dynamism; (4) environmental heterogeneity; and (5) competition intensity. The remaining 11 success factors are heterogeneous. For those heterogeneous success factors, we conducted a moderator analysis. Of this set, three appeared to be success factors, and two were failure factors for subgroups within the NTVs' population. To facilitate the development of a body of knowledge in technology entrepreneurship, this study also identifies high-quality measurement scales for future research. The article concludes with future research directions.
  • The role of mixed emotions in the risk perception of novice and serial entrepreneurs

    Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Van Der Bij, Hans; Song, Michael (Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 2012)
    This study examines the role of mixed emotions in the risk perception of entrepreneurs, an important determinant of entrepreneurial decision making. We extend the literature on mixed emotions by applying the cognitive appraisal tendency approach and contrasting it with ambivalence stemming from the valence–based approach. We test our hypotheses on a data set of 253 entrepreneurs from the United States. We show that mixed and conflicting emotions are an important predictor of the risk perception of entrepreneurs. At the same time, we find that emotional reactions of entrepreneurs on strategic issues change substantially as they found more ventures and become habitual entrepreneurs.
  • Directive deficiencies: How resource constraints direct opportunity identification in SMEs

    van Burg, Elco; Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Beck, Lien; Lommelen, Tinne (Journal of Product Innovation Management, 2012)
    Previous studies show that resource constraints have mixed effects on innovation and opportunity identification byentrepreneurs. Sometimes, resource constraints lead to identifying more opportunities, whereas in other cases, entre-preneurs see fewer opportunities. This study explores a new approach to reconcile this inconsistency. Using a sampleof 219 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we explore relationships between supply and demand constraints,on the one hand, and identifying supply and demand opportunities, on the other hand. The results show that supplyconstraints have a positive effect on identifying supply opportunities but a negative effect on identifying demandopportunities. Similarly, demand constraints have a positive effect on identifying demand opportunities but a negativeeffect on identifying supply opportunities. Thus, this study shows that resource constraints direct the entrepreneur’sattention toward opportunities inside the constrained domain rather than outside the constrained domain. An importantconsequence for theory is that a complete explanation of the mixed effects of resource constraints should considerdifferent types of resource constraints and different sources of opportunities simultaneously. For practicing entrepre-neurs, being aware of this mechanism can prevent missing out on promising opportunities outside the constraineddomains.
  • Directive Deficiencies: How resource constraints direct opportunity identification in SMEs

    van Burg, Elco; Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Beck, Lien; Lommelen, Tinne (Journal of Product Innovation Management, 2012)
    Previous studies show that resource constraints have mixed effects on innovation and opportunity identification by entrepreneurs. Sometimes, resource constraints lead to identifying more opportunities, whereas in other cases, entrepreneurs see fewer opportunities. This study explores a new approach to reconcile this inconsistency. Using a sample of 219 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we explore relationships between supply and demand constraints, on the one hand, and identifying supply and demand opportunities, on the other hand. The results show that supply constraints have a positive effect on identifying supply opportunities but a negative effect on identifying demand opportunities. Similarly, demand constraints have a positive effect on identifying demand opportunities but a negative effect on identifying supply opportunities. Thus, this study shows that resource constraints direct the entrepreneur's attention toward opportunities inside the constrained domain rather than outside the constrained domain. An important consequence for theory is that a complete explanation of the mixed effects of resource constraints should consider different types of resource constraints and different sources of opportunities simultaneously. For practicing entrepreneurs, being aware of this mechanism can prevent missing out on promising opportunities outside the constrained domains.
  • Improving new technology venture performance under direct and indirect network externality conditions

    Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Song, Michael; van der Bij, Hans; Weggeman, Mathieu (Journal of Business Venturing, 2013)
    This study compares the effectiveness of five responses to external uncertainty in markets with network externalities: avoidance, imitation, control, cooperation, and real options reasoning as a form of strategic flexibility. Our analysis of 385 new technology ventures shows that direct and indirect network externalities have opposite effects on the effectiveness of these strategies. Moreover, under network externalities, attempts to make ventures less dependent upon environmental instabilities perform differently compared to attempts to control the environment. Finally, we show that real options reasoning does not always perform better under conditions of higher uncertainty, such as uncertainty due to direct network externalities.
  • A review of governmental support instruments channeling PV market growth in the Flanders region of Belgium (2006–2013)

    Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; van Rijn, M.L.B.; Verbong, Geert P.J. (Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016)
    How did a country in the middle of Western Europe, starting almost from scratch, reach the European top 3 in terms of solar PV capacity in five years? And what were the costs? We provide a systematic chronological review of the different governmental support instruments that drove the exponential growth of the solar energy market in the Flanders region of Belgium and calculate their relative contributions. The results of the economic calculations show that green electricity certificates had by far the greatest effect on both the rise and stagnation of the market, costing about 1.5 billion euro only for 2006–2013. The long-term societal costs of such growth proved to be even higher (6.7 billion for 2014–2031) and unevenly distributed, with residents paying the highest price via their energy bills. Companies continuously adapted their organizations to enact the available support instruments. Counter-intuitively, the substantial support shifted the attention of companies to the larger systems, even though the incentive for investment in PV was lower than for the smaller systems.
  • Mainstreaming solar: Stretching the regulatory regime through business model innovation

    Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Verbong, Geert P.J.; Podoynitsyna, Ksenia (Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 2016)
    This paper explores how the regulatory regime for Solar PV, defined as a combination of niche shielding and mainstream regulations, affects niche business models, using the Dutch and Flemish regulatory regimes as examples. The regulatory regime does not influence all components of the business model: only one or two components are usually affected. The level of niche shielding influences the dominant niche empowerment strategy. We also identified substantial heterogeneity in fit-and-conform and stretch-and-transform empowerment strategies for dealing with the regulatory regime. These strategies are reflected in business models, and differ in terms of temporal focus, motivation and shielding characteristics targeted. Finally, we show that business model innovation, sometimes in combination with technological innovation, can be used for stretching the regulatory regime. Organizational components of the business model are usually redesigned for this purpose.
  • Learning while (re)configuring: Business model innovation processes in established firms

    Berends, Hans; Smits, Armand; Reymen, I.; Podoynitsyna, Ksenia (Strategic Organization, 2016)
    This study addresses the question of how established organizations develop new business models over time, using a process research approach to trace how four business model innovation trajectories unfold. With organizational learning as analytical lens, we discern two process patterns: “drifting” starts with an emphasis on experiential learning and shifts later to cognitive search; “leaping,” in contrast, starts with an emphasis on cognitive search and shifts later to experiential learning. Both drifting and leaping can result in radical business model innovations, while their occurrence depends on whether a new business model takes off from an existing model and when it goes into operation. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory on business models and organizational learning.

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