Recent Submissions

  • Outcomes of team creativity: A person-environment fit perspective

    Bam, Louzanne; De Stobbeleir, Katleen; Vlok, PJ (Emerald, 2019)
    Limited research where team creativity (TC) is positioned as an independent variable constitutes a weak point in the body of knowledge. This paper aims to offer three contributions to address this research gap: empirical research that has been conducted on the outcomes of TC is summarized; a person–environment fit perspective is applied to develop a conceptual model for TC; and directions for future empirical research are proposed. A literature review is conducted to identify empirical research on the outcomes of TC. This is summarized into an extension of an existing framework that organizes empirical research on the antecedents of TC. Furthermore, the fit model for TC is developed, based on a person–environment fit perspective. Research on the outcomes of TC has focused on three themes: performance; affective state; and processes. Gaps in this body of knowledge include limited knowledge on performance outcomes and a lack of research on potential negative outcomes. Recommendations for future research include: potential moderators of the relationship between TC and two outcome, innovation and team performance, are proposed; strain and unethical decision-making are proposed as potential negative outcomes of TC; and it is proposed that incorporating a temporal dimension would improve the understanding of the cyclical manner in which certain variables and TC may interact over time. he organizing framework extension summarizes existing knowledge on the outcomes of TC, and together with the fit model for TC, this offers a basis for identifying research gaps and directions for future research. Specific directions for future empirical research are proposed.
  • When holding in prevents from reaching out: Emotion suppression and social support-seeking in multicultural groups (Accepted)

    Boros, Smaranda; Van Gorp, Lore; Boiger, Michael (Frontiers, 2019)
    Members of multicultural groups benefit from developing diverse social support networks. Engaging openly with people who have a different worldview (i.e., given by a different cultural background) broadens one’s cognitive horizons, facilitates one’s adaptation to new contexts, decreases stereotyping and discrimination and generally improves individual and group performance. However, if this social connection is hindered (either by limiting the number of people one reaches out to or in terms of preferring to connect to similar others), then the diversity advantage is lost – both for the individuals and for the groups. Through two case studies of professional groups with varying cultural diversity (moderate and superdiverse), we investigate the evolution of their members’ social support networks (i.e., to what extent and to whom they reach out for support) depending on (1) individuals’ habitual emotion suppression and (2) cultural orientation on the individualism-collectivism dimension. Results show that individualistic cultures suffer a double-whammy: when suppressing, their members seek less support (i.e., don’t reach out so much to ask for support) and tend to seek culturally similar others for it when they do. Suppressing collectivists are less affected in absolute levels of connectedness, but still prefer culturally similar others as sources of support. Our study offers an emotion-based view of why people stick together with similar others in diverse groups and how learning to better cope with emotions can make us more open-minded towards diversity in professional settings.
  • Negatieve feedback leidt zelden tot verbetering

    Van Steerthem, Angie (Editions NMG SPRL, 2019)
    Kritische beoordelingen van collega's zetten medewerkers ertoe aan hun rol aan te passen, zodat ze meer kunnen samenwerken met wie hen positievere beoordelingen geeft. Hoe negatiever de feedback, hoe verder de werknemers gaan om nieuwe netwerken te smeden. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Paul Green, doctoraatsstudent aan de Harvard Business School en twee van zijn collega’s. Het onderzoek werd onder meer gevoerd in een bedrijf dat een transparant peerreviewproces hanteert en de medewerkers toelaat hun job voor een stuk zelf vorm te geven.
  • De economie van morgen. Wat met de wendbaarheid van onze werkgevers en werknemers?

    Van Steerthem, Angie; Baeten, Xavier (Uitgeverij Acco, 2019)
    Tijdens de voorbije beleidscyclus zette het arbeidsmarktbeleid in op het voorzien van de langetermijnrandvoorwaarden die moeten toelaten dat werknemers en bedrijven opportuniteiten zien en initiatief nemen in onze huidige veranderende economische context. De overheid investeerde in een innovatiecultuur en in een waardengedreven beleid ter voorbereiding op de economie van morgen. Om dat te verwezenlijken linkte de Vlaamse Regering een aantal hefbomen aan een reeks kernwaarden (Vlaamse Regering, 2014) zoals wendbaarheid, duurzaamheid met een focus op de lange termijn en op transparantie, responsabilisering van individuen en organisaties, klantgerichtheid en zorg voor de werknemer en maatwerk. Vanuit eigen onderzoek binnen het Vlerick Centre for Excellence in Strategic Rewards gaan we dieper in op elk van de vermelde kernwaarden en wat deze betekenen voor een beloningsbeleid gericht op het stimuleren van wendbaarheid en innovatie binnen bedrijven én bij medewerkers.
  • Zo worden overheidsinvesteringen een succes

    Manigart, Sophie; Standaert, Thomas (Nive, 2019)
    Overheden kunnen met investeringen het verschil maken voor bedrijven met groeipotentie, betogen Sophie Manigart en Thomas Standaert van Vlerick Business School. Zij ontleden vier modellen voor overheidsinvesteringen en pleiten voor een proactieve overheid met een hands-off-mentaliteit.
  • Book highlight - Setting a clear strategic direction

    Verweire, Kurt; Letens, Geert; De Prins, Peter (Wiley, 2019)
    It is important to have an inspiring change vision, an ambition to create a future that is better than what exists now. It is equally important to translate that aspiration into a well-defined direction and strategy. An aspiration without a strategy is little more than a dream. In too many organizations, the“how”of change is often as unclear as the“why”of change.
  • A decomposed branch-and-price procedure for integrating demand planning in personnel staffing problems

    Van Den Eeckhout, Mick; Vanhoucke, Mario; Maenhout, Broos (Elsevier, 2020)
    Project staffing with discrete time/resource trade-offs and calendar constraints. • A cut-branch-and-price procedure is proposed. Decomposition into subproblems with a specific staffing composition. Dedicated cuts include personnel information in the workload pricing problem. The personnel staffing problem calculates the required workforce size and is determined by constructing a baseline personnel roster that assigns personnel members to duties in order to cover certain staffing requirements. In this research, we incorporate the planning of the duty demand in the staff scheduling problem in order to lower the staffing costs. More specifically, the demand originates from a project scheduling problem with discrete time/resource trade-offs, which embodies additional flexibility as activities can be executed in different modes. In order to tackle this integrated problem, we propose a decomposed branch-and-price procedure. A tight lower and upper bound are calculated using a problem formulation that models the project scheduling constraints and the time-related resource scheduling constraints implicitly in the decision variables. Based upon these bounds, the strategic problem is decomposed into multiple tactical subproblems with a fixed workforce size and an optimal solution is searched for each subproblem via branch-and-price. Fixing the workforce size in a subproblem facilitates the definition of resource capacity cuts, which limit the set of eligible project schedules, decreasing the size of the branching tree. In addition, in order to find the optimal integer solution, we propose a specific search strategy based upon the lower bound and dedicated rules to branch upon the workload generated by a project schedule. The computational results show that applying the proposed search space decomposition and the inclusion of resource capacity cuts lead to a well-performing procedure outperforming different other heuristic and exact methodologies.
  • A statistical method for estimating activity uncertainty parameters to improve project forecasting

    Vanhoucke, Mario; Batselier, Jordy (MDPI, 2019)
    Just like any physical system, projects have entropy that must be managed by spending energy. The entropy is the project’s tendency to move to a state of disorder (schedule delays, cost overruns), and the energy process is an inherent part of any project management methodology. In order to manage the inherent uncertainty of these projects, accurate estimates (for durations, costs, resources, …) are crucial to make informed decisions. Without these estimates, managers have to fall back to their own intuition and experience, which are undoubtedly crucial for making decisions, but are are often subject to biases and hard to quantify. This paper builds further on two published calibration methods that aim to extract data from real projects and calibrate them to better estimate the parameters for the probability distributions of activity durations. Both methods rely on the lognormal distribution model to estimate uncertainty in activity durations and perform a sequence of statistical hypothesis tests that take the possible presence of two human biases into account. Based on these two existing methods, a new so-called statistical partitioning heuristic is presented that integrates the best elements of the two methods to further improve the accuracy of estimating the distribution of activity duration uncertainty. A computational experiment has been carried out on an empirical database of 83 empirical projects. The experiment shows that the new statistical partitioning method performs at least as good as, and often better than, the two existing calibration methods. The improvement will allow a better quantification of the activity duration uncertainty, which will eventually lead to a better prediction of the project schedule and more realistic expectations about the project outcomes. Consequently, the project manager will be able to better cope with the inherent uncertainty (entropy) of projects with a minimum managerial effort (energy).
  • Flexible multivariate hill estimators (Accepted)

    Dominicy, Yves; Heikkilä, Matias; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Veredas, David (Elsevier, 2019)
    Dominicy et al. (2017) introduce a family of Hill estimators for elliptically distributed and heavy tailed random vectors. They propose to use the univariate Hill to a norm of order of the data. The norms are homogeneous functions of order one. We show that the family of estimators can be generalized to homogeneous functions of any order and, more importantly, that ellipticity is not required. Only multivariate regular variation is needed, as it is preserved under well-behaved homogeneous functions. This enables us to have flexibility in terms of the estimator and the underlying distribution. Consistency and asymptotic normality are shown, and a Monte Carlo study is conducted to assess the finite sample properties under different asymmetric and heavy tailed multivariate distributions. We illustrate the estimators with an application to 10 years of daily data of paid claims from property insurance policies across 15 regions of Belgium.
  • Comparison and classification of flexible distributions for multivariate skew and heavy-tailed data

    Babic, Sladana; Ley, Christophe; Veredas, David (MDPI, 2019)
    We present, compare and classify popular families of flexible multivariate distributions. Our classification is based on the type of symmetry (spherical, elliptical, central symmetry or asymmetry) and the tail behaviour (a single tail weight parameter or multiple tail weight parameters). We compare the families both theoretically (relevant properties and distinctive features) and with a Monte Carlo study (comparing the fitting abilities in finite samples).
  • Fostering multidisciplinary collaboration in drug discovery

    Erden, Zeynep; Ben-Menahem, Shiko; von Krogh, Georg; Schneider, Andreas; Koch, Guido; Widmer, Hans (R J Communications & Media World Ltd, 2019)
    Drug discovery teams combine specialists with in-depth knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines. Such diversity in thought worlds poses a challenging exercise in cross-disciplinary collaboration and project coordination. Based on a longitudinal field study of five projects in a leading pharmaceutical company we present a framework outlining the conditions for effective cross-disciplinary collaboration in drug discovery teams. We show that knowledge creation in multidisciplinary teams relies on a combination of formal team structures and informal co-ordination practices. Formal team structures set the boundary conditions for cross-disciplinary co-ordination. Within their boundaries self-managed sub-teams draw on informal co-ordination practices involving cross-disciplinary anticipation, synchronization and triangulation to overcome knowledge boundaries and high uncertainty. We identify five key insights and two questions which are important for managers to consider for fostering multidisciplinary collaboration in drug discovery.
  • Choice for entrepreneurial career: Do cognitive styles matter? (Published Online)

    Deprez, Jana; Cools, Eva; Robijn, Wouter; Euwema, Martin (De Gruyter, 2019)
    Upon graduation, students make the decision to either become an entrepreneur or an employee. Numerous studies have thus investigated personal and environmental factors that impact this decision. As cognitive styles have become more and more important in determining individual and organisational behaviour, and as they are presumed to provide new valuable insights over and above other personal factors, they provide the ideal focus to further explore this career choice. In this article, we aim to explore how creating, planning, and knowing cognitive style relate to entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions, and career choices. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in a first sample, we investigate the direct and indirect impact that cognitive styles have on entrepreneurial intention through attitudes. In our second sample, we look at how career preferences for entrepreneurship or a more traditional career as an employee are affected by cognitive styles. Using structural equation modelling analysis, this study finds evidence for the importance of creating cognitive style on entrepreneurial outcomes. Additionally, we find evidence for the relationship between planning cognitive style and wanting to be an employee. Knowing style does not lead to either preference. This paper extends the current knowledge on cognitive styles and entrepreneurship by analysing the impact of other cognitive styles than the predominantly used innovative styles and by also exploring its impact on important antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions, such as entrepreneurial attitude and career preferences.
  • Project schedule performance under general mode implementation disruptions

    Burgelman, Jeroen; Vanhoucke, Mario (Elsevier, 2020)
    This paper presents a simulation study for a resource-constrained project scheduling problem with multiple alternatives. We decide on a set of baseline schedules at the project planning phase, resulting in options to switch between execution modes of activities during project execution. We assess the performance of the set of baseline schedules under general mode implementation disruptions. A simple, yet effective algorithm is presented to construct the set of baseline schedules. Moreover, a general disruption system is proposed to model different disruption types, disruption dependencies and disruption sizes.
  • Strategies for project scheduling with alternative subgraphs under uncertainty: Similar and dissimilar sets of schedules

    Servranckx, Tom; Vanhoucke, Mario (Elsevier, 2019)
    In the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with alternative subgraphs (RCPSP-AS), we model alternative execution modes for work packages in the project. In contrast to the traditional RCPSP, the project network consists of different alternative work packages. To that purpose, the scheduling problem selects the best possible alternatives for the construction of the baseline schedule. On top of that, several back-up schedules are created in order to cope with unexpected changes along the project progress. In the presence of uncertainty, we can then switch between these alternative schedules at different decision moments in order to bring the project back on track. The alternative schedules are combined in a set of schedules that should be constructed by the project manager prior to project execution. We present a computational experiment to investigate the ability of using such a set of schedules in the presence of uncertainty during project execution. The experiments indicate that using a set of schedules outperforms the use of a single schedule, even when the uncertainty level is relatively low. The results also show that the composition of this schedule set is important. Therefore, a degree of schedule similarity is proposed to analyse this composition, and results show that a mix of similar and dissimilar schedules performs best. Finally, we show that the solution quality of each schedule in the set has an impact on the performance of the schedule switches given the project disruptions.
  • Signal strength, media attention and new firm resource mobilization: Evidence from new private equity firms (Published Online)

    Vanacker, Tom; Forbes, Daniel; Knockaert, Mirjam; Manigart, Sophie (Academy of Management, 2019)
    Past research has shown that new firms can facilitate resource mobilization by signaling their unobservable quality to prospective resource providers. However, we know less about situations in which firms convey multiple signals of different strengths—i.e., signals that are more or less correlated with unobservable firm quality. Building on a sociocognitive perspective, we propose that prospective resource providers respond differently to signals of different strengths and that the effectiveness of signals, especially weak signals, will be contingent on the media attention new firms receive. Empirically, we conduct a longitudinal analysis examining the ability of new private equity (PE) firms to raise a follow-on fund. Consistent with our theory, we find that unrealized performance, a relatively weak signal, positively influences fundraising. But we fail to find statistical evidence that its effect is weaker than that of realized performance, a relatively strong signal. Further, media attention strengthens the relationship between unrealized performance and fundraising, but media attention exerts less impact on the relationship between realized performance and fundraising. Taken together, our findings deepen our understanding of how new firms can mobilize resources with signals of different strengths and of how the media—as a key information intermediary—differently impacts their effectiveness.
  • Management control design in long-term buyer-supplier relationships: Unpacking the learning process (Published Online)

    Stouthuysen, Kristof; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra; Van der Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje; Roodhooft, Filip (Elsevier, 2019)
    Management control (MC) design is crucial to the success of buyer-supplier relationships, yet we know little about how a buying company designs the management controls (MCs) of such relationships over time. In this paper, we use data collected in a six-year field study on the design of the MCs of a new facilities management (FM) outsourcing relationship. We find that boundary spanners learn to control in multiple ways, including trial and error, advice from third parties, experimentation, cross-level learning (i.e., corporate boundary spanners learning from operating boundary spanners), and advice from the partner. Moreover, the role of boundary spanners influences their focus of learning attention, with corporate boundary spanners focusing more on strategic aspects of the relationship (such as reducing appropriation concerns), and operating boundary spanners focusing more on FM activities and the coordination problems related to these activities. The lessons learned by both types of boundary spanners lead to the design of different types of control.
  • Resource-constrained project scheduling with activity splitting and setup times

    Vanhoucke, Mario; Coelho, José (Elsevier, 2019)
    This paper presents a new solution algorithm to solve the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with activity splitting and setup times. The option of splitting activities, known as activity preemption, has been studied in literature from various angles, and an overview of the main contributions will be given. The solution algorithm makes use of a meta-heuristic search for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) using network transformations to split activities in subparts. More precisely, the project network is split up such that all possible preemptive parts are incorporated into an extended network as so-called activity segments, and setup times are incorporated between the different activity segments. Due to the inherent complexity to solve the problem for such huge project networks, a solution approach is proposed that selects the appropriate activity segments and ignores the remaining segments using a boolean satisfiability problem solver, and afterwards schedules these projects to near-optimality with the renewable resource constraints. The algorithm has been tested using a large computational experiment with five types of setup times. Moreover, an extension to the problem with overlaps between preemptive parts of activities has been proposed and it is shown that our algorithm can easily cope with this extension without changing it. Computational experiments show that activity preemption sometimes leads to makespan reductions without requiring a lot of splits in the activities. Moreover, is shown that the degree of these makespan reductions depends on the network and resource indicators of the project instance.
  • A three-dimensional conceptual framework of corporate water responsibility

    Martinez, Fabien (Sage, 2015)
    This article offers a conceptual framework that comprehensively describes essential aspects of corporate water responsibility. What heretofore has been essentially regarded as an issue to be tackled by governmental institutions, and therefore not perceived as an important component of the value that is created for the institutional and private owners of profit-driven companies, is explicitly treated here as a corporate responsibility. Bridging knowledge domains, I review major research works conducted by management, corporate sustainability, and (welfare) economics scholars and focusing on water management issues to unveil the conditions under which corporations are likely to manage, or to be challenged in managing, water in responsible/sustainable ways. Three types of “tensions” that confront academics and managers alike are discussed: voluntary actions versus coercion, free riding versus cooperation, and economic versus corporate water responsibility motives. I propose a three-dimensional framework of corporate water responsibility for thinking through the managerial response patterns contemplated to address these tensions.
  • Smart money for social ventures: An analysis of the value-adding activities of philanthropic venture capitalists

    Ingstad, Eline L.; Knockaert, Mirjam; Fassin, Yves (Taylor & Francis Online, 2014)
    Philanthropic venture capitalists (PhVCs) provide social entrepreneurs with financial and nonfinancial resources. This paper studies how and why PhVCs engage in value-adding activities. Employing an inductive case study method, our study shows that value-adding activities engaged in by PhVCs are similar to the activities carried out by traditional venture capitalists. Further, we find self-efficacy and goal setting theories to be particularly relevant in studying why PhVCs engage in value-adding activities. Concretely, PhVCs engage in value-adding activities that are in line with their efficacy beliefs and that facilitate the achievement of lower-order goals related to professionalization, self-sustainability, and expansion. As such, they aim at reaching the higher-end goal of scaling the social venture.
  • Wint ons leervermogen het van kennis en expertise?

    Vandenbroucke, Astrid (Editions NMG SPRL, 2018)

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