• An evolutionary perspective on convergence: inducing a stage model of inter-industry innovation

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Fahrni, F. (International Journal of Technology Management, 2010)
    • Business modeling as configuring heuristics

      Loock, M.; Hacklin, Fredrik (Advances in Strategic Management, 2015)
      While recent research has referred to a cognitive view on ‘business modeling’, it remains unclear in specifying the cognitive foundations of how such modeling happens. This paper proposes building on heuristics as models of individual cognition, which have proved effective foundations of adaptive individual and managerial behaviors. By also drawing on gestalt theory to specify principles of modeling as rule-based form giving, we propose business modeling as a managerial cognitive process of configuring heuristics. The paper makes three contributions. First, we introduce heuristics to the business modeling literature, and so provide an established theory of adaptive individual behavior that strengthens the cognitive foundations of business modeling. Second, we conceptualize and theorize on the cognitive activity of business modeling as an iterative process of configuring heuristics by applying gestalt principles. Although the literature on business models has referred to the theories of configurations and gestalt, it has been left to this work to make the theoretical linkages between heuristics, gestalt theory and business modeling explicit. Third, our work contributes to the micro-foundations of the cognitive processes underlying business modeling and thus to broader accounts of adaptive managerial behaviors.
    • Coevolutionary cycles of convergence: an extrapolation from ICT industry

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Fahrni, F. (Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 2009)
      Convergence between technologies can be regarded as an increasingly emerging trend, and has received particular attention in the coming-together of previously distinct products and solutions within the information and communication technologies (ICT) industry. In previous research, the overall impact of the convergence phenomenon remains ambiguous. Whereas some scholars suggest convergence to be associated with disintegration, entry and growth, others relate the phenomenon to opposite effects, such as consolidation and shakeouts. This inconsistency in managerial conceptions on convergence formulates a need for an integrated understanding. Within a multi-case study approach, the convergence within ICT has been observed through examining the coevolution of actors in a converging environment, and patterns in innovation dynamics and managerial responses have been identified. In reflection with existing models of innovation cycles, a model for convergence innovation processes is elaborated and discussed. In particular, the reasoning within the ICT case set is transferred onto the currently emerging entrepreneurial activities in the intersection between nano- and bio-technologies (NBT), resulting in a comparison between ICT and NBT convergences, and deriving recommendations from a retrospective to a predictive context.
    • Convergence and interdisciplinarity in innovation management: a review, critique, and future directions

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Wallin, Martin (The Service Industries Journal, 2013)
      Knowledge integration in the interstices between different disciplinary fields is becoming a critical challenge to innovation management. As disciplines converge into new hybrid fields, such as information and communication technology or nano-biotechnology, it ultimately creates winners and losers, be they new firms that displace incumbents or individual scientists better positioned to reap rewards from new targeted grants. While received literature recognizes the importance of interdisciplinarity, little is known about its theoretical and conceptual antecedents. To meet this challenge, we first review and critique the literature on interdisciplinarity from a knowledge-based perspective, and, second, identify challenges for innovation management and formulate implications for further research. In particular, we outline how individual and team-level heterogeneity should be addressed. By adopting such a micro-level perspective, innovation management can embrace heterogeneity and effectively unlock the true value of interdisciplinary knowledge.
    • Core rigidities in the innovation process: a structured benchmark on knowledge management challenges

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Inganäs, Martin; Marxt, Christian; Pluss, Adrian (International Journal of Technology Management, 2009)
      A changing industrial and technological environment implies a need for a diligent acquisition of dynamic capabilities. While tackling exogenous discontinuities is imperative for success, the problem often lies in the firms' internal processes, where existing core competences might deteriorate to core rigidities. The presented contribution is two-fold: first, a conceptual framework for assessing knowledge-related rigidities along the innovation process is introduced, which is derived from the stage-gate model for new product development. The innovation process is evaluated within cases of four industry firms, with emphasis on identifying problem areas, core rigidities and resulting challenges along the entire way from idea to market launch. Secondly, the challenges are clustered, providing a basis for deriving optimisation approaches, as well as summarised and compared across the cases. In all phases of the innovation process, the benchmark with other firms seems to ease the process of creating awareness on rigidities and to provide a basis for managerial improvement.
    • Design, product development, innovation: all the same in the end? A short discussion on terminology

      Marxt, Christian; Hacklin, Fredrik (Journal of Engineering Design, 2005)
      The spectrum of terminology to describe the professional and academic field “design” is manifold. Terms like design, engineering design, product development, and innovation are widely accepted and used. Whereas some of these terms are common in the business area, others are rather used in the engineering field. Based on the terminologies from exponents of the design science as well as other communities, the paper tries to broaden the view on what “design” means. Additionally, the paper highlights the accordance and differences between the terms design, product development and innovation, and attempts to derive implications for organising research practice in such a broader context. The paper should be seen as starting point for a wider discussion.
    • Exploring social preferences in private-collection innovation

      Garriga, Helena; Aksuyek, Efe; Hacklin, Fredrik; von Krogh, Georg (Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 2012)
      Firms, research institutions and individuals have long realised the advantages of innovating in an open manner. Companies such as IBM, Philips and Procter & Gamble, increasingly seek to cooperate with outside individuals and organisations to tap into their ideas for new products and services. This approach makes good business sense, but it is also difficult to achieve. In particular, mechanisms that motivate innovators to ‘open up’ are critical in achieving the benefits of open innovation. Private–collective innovation (PCI) has become an increasingly important model for explaining innovation at the boundaries of traditional, closed and open innovation regimes. Previous work has examined PCI both conceptually and empirically, and recent scholarship has focused specifically on the initiation of PCI as it relates to problems of collective action. This work shows that a project will not ‘take off’ unless the right incentives are in place for innovators to contribute their knowledge to open innovation from the beginning. Drawing on behavioural game theory, this paper expands on prior work by exploring social preferences in the initiation of PCI. The authors conducted a simulation study that shows how inequality aversion, reciprocity and fairness affect the underlying conditions that lead to the initiation of PCI. The results indicate that reciprocity and the potential gains for other participants explain changes in individual knowledge sharing in PCI.
    • Implications of technological convergence on innovation trajectories: the case of ICT industry

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Raurich, C.; Marxt, Christian (International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 2005)
      Current innovation management literature and research statically differentiates between incremental and disruptive innovation, as far as the trajectory development is concerned. Incremental innovation is generally comprehended as an improvement of technology performance or product feature enhancement, whereas disruptive innovation is defined based on technologies previously new to the world, combined with their effects on markets. The authors of this research present how a convergence of several well-known, incrementally developing technologies can result in innovations with highly disruptive character in terms of innovation trajectories. Paradoxically, in disruptive situations, operative actions must be taken before strategic planning can be made, as the industrial and economic environment can be regarded as extremely uncertain. In this context, however, we argue that this special case caused by the convergence of technologies can serve to understand certain areas of emerging industrial disruptions and hence support the strategic planning and technology management of a firm acting in this area. The case of information and communication technology (ICT) industry is used to highlight this convergence phenomenon as a special case of emerging disruptive innovation. Based on this example, the process of innovations transforming from incremental towards disruptive due to convergence will be examined, and entrepreneurial recommendations for sustaining the competitive advantage and supporting value creation will be derived.
    • Knowledge management with focus on the innovation process in collaborative networking companies

      Inganäs, Martin; Hacklin, Fredrik; Pluss, Adrian; Marxt, Christian (International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 2006)
      Knowledge lies at the very heart of innovation. A company's ability to create, store and transfer knowledge about technologies, customer needs and the innovation process itself may well determine success in bringing new products or services to the market. Yet, little is known as to how companies treat these issues in practice. This paper presents the results of a research project assessing practices and challenges for innovation-oriented knowledge management within four global technology-based companies in Switzerland. Results are discussed from both company-internal and external network perspectives. For company-internal knowledge management, broad differences in terms of both practices and challenges were found between the companies mainly because of different ways of implementing the innovation process and very different company cultures. Common issues included poor implementation of post-project reviews as well as a need for better integrating market and customer knowledge into all stages of the innovation process. For the external perspective, a more homogenous picture emerged where companies network with different partners throughout the innovation process and where knowledge creation and transfer were substantially greater for long-term partnerships.
    • The limits of industry-centered strategic thinking in an era of convergence

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Battistini, Boris; Wallin, Martin (Strategies, 2013)
    • Opciones estratégicas en las industrias convergentes

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Battistini, Boris; von Krogh, Georg (Harvard Deusto Business Review, 2014)
    • Organising for coporate venturing

      Battistini, Boris; Hacklin, Fredrik; Baschera, Pius (European Financial Review, 2014)
    • Servitization as reinforcement, not transformation

      Salonen, A.; Saglam, O.; Hacklin, Fredrik (Journal of Service Management, 2017)
      The purpose of this paper is to explain why product-centric manufacturers utilize advanced services not as vehicles of transformation, but of reinforcement, to strengthen their established business model logic based on selling products and basic product-related services.
    • Sponsored, contract and collaborative research: a framework for science-industry knowledge transfer

      Inganäs, Martin; Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian (International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 2009)
      Using the knowledge-based view of the firm, this paper contributes to improving our understanding of science-industry interaction. Based on research in the Swiss biotech sector, it provides a categorisation of three forms of interaction – sponsored, contract and collaborative research. Taking the process of knowledge transfer, interaction context, and knowledge context into account, the results indicate that these forms of interaction involve distinct ways of organising science?industry knowledge transfer. Arguing that the management of these interactions involves finding a delicate balance between structure and freedom, we suggest that the optimal managerial approach is contingent upon the form of interaction.
    • Strategic choices in converging industries

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Battistini, Boris; von Krogh, Georg (MIT Sloan Management Review, 2013)
      In the relentless evolution of technology and markets, many industries are in the midst of, or are approaching, major reconfigurations of their fundamental architectures and the way companies capture value.1 The changes are well underway in biopharma, nutrition products, health care and energy, where technologies and distinct knowledge bases are changing and converging. Perhaps the most dramatic example of such convergence is taking place in the booming space of telecommunications, information technology, media and entertainment, which many people now refer to as a single field, the “TIME” industries.2 The TIME industries are characterized not only by the variety of new technological products and services being launched at an ever-increasing pace but also by the surging complexity of their markets and how companies win. As some companies have expanded their scope, others have been forced to rethink and retool their strategies. In many ways, the TIME example offers a useful model for managers in other industries where convergence is less obvious.
    • Strategic venture partner selection for collaborative innovation in production systems: A decision support system-based approach

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Fahrni, F. (International Journal of Production Economics, 2006)
      Collaborative innovation and product development projects can be regarded as an emerging challenge in innovation management, being partly reflected by the currently observable industry demand for support from strategic planning tools serving this purpose. A software tool for providing operationalized decision support has been developed, based on previous research in the area of collaborative innovation success factors. By applying experience of coaching a public research organization in finding a suitable partner for joining forces in the research and development of a future energy technology, this paper presents a solution taking into account the given competitive restrictions. Being designed for usage within a coaching framework, the tool provides a multi-perspective and interactive overview of potential venture partners to the decision-makers. Furthermore, the adoption of an integrated partner selection process for supporting technology-intensive organizations in their preparation and implementation of successful collaborative ventures is suggested.
    • Strategies for business model innovation: How firms reel in migrating value

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Björkdahl, Joakim; Wallin, Martin (Long Range Planning, 2018)
      This paper brings together firm-level research on business models and industry-level research on value migration to examine patterns of business model innovation. We draw on qualitative data from 14 cases and 68 interviews in the computer and telecommunications industries to demonstrate how business model innovation is sensitive to industry-wide forces of value migration. Based on our analysis we conclude that when value is rapidly migrating across industries and between firms, proactively substituting key elements of the primary business model provides a better fit with the new value landscape than launching secondary business models in parallel. We suggest four underlying mechanisms that link business model innovation, value migration and subsequent outcomes. Unpacking business model innovation allows us to discuss contingencies for the main business model strategies, specifically in terms of limitations to—and opportunities of—changing the primary business model and the practice of parallel business models
    • The business model in entrepreneurial marketing: a communication perspective on business angels' opportunity interpretation

      Wallnöfer, Maria; Hacklin, Fredrik (Industrial Marketing Management, 2013)
      Entrepreneurial marketing has emerged as a recent perspective within the marketing field, taking the challenges and characteristics of small firms and founding teams into account. Specifically, in the early stages of entrepreneurial marketing, besides potential customers a variety of other stakeholders tend to be in the center of attention. Among these stakeholders, business angels as early-stage investors represent a vital target group. In this paper, we aim to shed light on entrepreneurial marketing in the early phases of new venture creation, in which entrepreneurial firms have an inherent need to market the value of a business opportunity toward potential investors. In particular, we contribute to the literature by introducing the business model as a narrative device for the marketing of early-stage new ventures toward potential business angels. In this regard, the business model is suggested as playing a critical role through making the inherent economic value of a technology explicit. Building on narrative theory, we investigate the role that the business model plays in the decision-making process of 17 business angels. Based on our findings, we propose a model that links the business model to a business angel's interpretation of an investment opportunity and discuss implications for theory and practice.
    • The business model in the practice of strategic decision making: insights from a case study

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Wallnöfer, Maria (Management Decision, 2012)