• Antecedents and consequences of collective psychological ownership: The validation of a conceptual model

      Giordano, Ana Paula; Patient, David; Passos, Ana Margarida; Sguera, Francesco (Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2020)
      We investigate team member feelings of collective psychological ownership (CPO) over teamwork products, the psychological paths that lead to it, and its impact on team workers' evaluations of team effectiveness, turnover intentions, and intentions to champion teamwork products. We focus on the teamwork product as an important target of ownership feelings, building on theories of self‐extension, psychological ownership, and team emergent states. In Study 1, we validate measures for three ownership activating experiences (OAE) that have been proposed as paths to CPO (control over, intimate knowledge regarding, and investment in the teamwork product) using two samples of individual team workers (n = 210 and n = 140). In Study 2 (n = 183) and Study 3 (n = 200), we use surveys and a multiwave design to show that team workers' feelings of CPO mediate the relationship between investment in and intimate knowledge regarding the product and team effectiveness evaluations, team turnover intentions, and intentions to champion the work product. In Study 4 (n = 48 teams), CPO was predicted by the ownership activating experiences, at the team level. This research additionally highlights the benefits to organizations of creating conditions for the emergence of employee feelings of shared ownership over teamwork products.
    • Bringing together different perspectives on ethical leadership

      Grover, Steven; Nadisic, Thierry; Patient, David (Journal of Change Management, 2012)
      Recent corporate scandals, including the mortgage situation precipitating the global financial crisis in 2008, have led many people to question the role of un/ethical leadership in corporate misbehaviour. Organizational scholars contribute to our understanding of ethical leadership by investigating and theorizing within ethical leadership in corporate misbehaviour. Organizational scholars contribute to our understanding of ethical leadership by investigating and theorizing within the organizational justice, trust, business ethics and leadership literatures. Unfortunately, work relating to ethical leadership from these different subfields has rarely been brought together, despite common themes and concerns. As a result, the accumulated insights have been described as ‘underdeveloped and fragmented’ (Brown and Trevin˜o, 2006), leading some researchers to call for better integration of these literatures (van Knippenberg et al., 2007; De Cremer, Mayer and Schminke, 2010; Rupp et al., 2010).
    • From crisis to enlivenment: An AOM president responds to EO13769

      Pirson, Michael; Adler, Paul; Barney, Jay; Bartunek, Jean; Patient, David; Phillips, Nelson; Pitelis, Christos (Journal of Management Inquiry, 2019)
      In assembly of short responses, noted scholars—including former presidents of the Academy of Management (AOM)—share their perspectives on the events related to AOM leadership following EO13769. The pieces are reflections on the micro-level aspects of leadership and the ethical and moral choices therein.
    • Increasing interpersonal and informational justice when communicating negative news: The role of the manager's empathic concern and moral development

      Patient, David; Skarlicki, Daniel (Journal of Management, 2010)
      The authors report two studies exploring the role of a manager's empathy in delivering negative news more fairly. In Study 1, 132 practicing managers completed a scenario task in which a layoff was to be communicated. Trait empathic concern predicted interpersonal and informational justice of written messages. In Study 2, 81 students provided face-to-face feedback to a confederate, which was videotaped. An empathic induction resulted in higher levels of interpersonal and informational justice relative to a control group. Furthermore, the empathic induction had a greater effect on interpersonal and informational justice for communicators who were high (versus low) in moral development.
    • It is time for justice: How time changes what weknow about justice judgments and justice effects

      Fortin, Marion; Conjuharenco, Irina; Patient, David; German, Hayley (Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2016)
      Organizational justice is an important determinant of workplace attitudes, decisions, and behaviors. However,understanding workplace fairness requires not only examining what happens but also when it happens, interms of justice events, perceptions, and reactions. We organize and discussfindings from 194 justice articleswith temporal aspects, selected from over a thousand empirical justice articles. By examining temporalaspects, ourfindings enrich and sometimes challenge the answers to three key questions in the organizationaljustice literature relating to (i) when individuals pay attention to fairness, including specific facets, (ii) howfairness judgments form and evolve, and (iii) how reactions to perceived (in)justice unfold. Our review iden-tifies promising avenues for empirical work and emphasizes the importance of developing temporal theoriesof justice.
    • Pitfalls of administering justice in an inconsistent world: Some reflections on the consistency rule

      Patient, David (Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2011)
      The unique legal context investigated by Stein, Steinley, and Cropanzano (this issue) highlights important challenges facing decision makers charged with administering justice in turbulent environments. First, rules may need to be adapted to new information and changed circumstances. Second, consistency over time can compete with altruistic motives, moral convictions, and other important principles. Third, decisionmakers may face demands from multiple audiences to re‐interpret a rule in ways that are harsher, more lenient, or otherwise different than previously warranted. Since managers in other organizational settings can also face strong pressures to change over time how they interpret and apply rules, the legal context highlights important aspects of fairness that can compete with consistency over time, and that merit further investigation
    • Seeing the forest or the trees of organizational justice: Effects of temporal perspective on employee concerns about unfair treatment at work

      Cojuharenco, Irina; Patient, David; Bashshur, Michael (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2011)
      What events do employees recall or anticipate when they think of past or future unfair treatment at work? We propose that an employee’s temporal perspective can change the salience of different types of injustice through its effect on cognitions about employment. Study 1 used a survey in which employee temporal focus was measured as an individual difference. Whereas greater levels of future focus related positively to concerns about distributive injustice, greater levels of present focus related positively to concerns about interactional injustice. In Study 2, an experimental design focused employee attention on timeframes that differed in temporal orientation and temporal distance. Whereas distributive injustice was more salient when future (versus past) orientation was induced, interactional injustice was more salient when past orientation was induced and at less temporal distance. Study 3 showed that the mechanism underlying the effect of employee temporal perspective is abstract versus concrete cognitions about employment.
    • Systemic justice and burnout: A multilevel model

      Haines,Victor; Patient, David; Marchand, Alain (Human Resource Management Journal, 2018)
      With the aim of extending organisational justice research to embrace significant and enduring aspects of the workplace context, this study examines organisational culture and human resource management (HRM) as constitutive dimensions of systemic justice and relates them to employee health. Bridging organisational justice, HRM, organisational culture, and occupational health research, we advance and test a multilevel model relating systemic justice to burnout. Data collected from 60 organisations; 89 employee groups; and 1,976 employees provide support for the hypothesised relationships between justice‐oriented culture, in terms of organisational values and group culture, and justice‐oriented HRM. In turn, justice‐oriented HRM related directly to employee burnout and indirectly through employee perceived job control and supervisor social support.
    • Tell me who, and I’ll tell you how fair: A model of agent bias in justice reasoning

      Cojuharenco, Irina; Marques, Tatiana; Patient, David (Group and Organization Management, 2017)
      A salient and underresearched aspect of un/fair treatment in organizations can be the source of justice, in terms of a specific justice agent. We propose a model of agent bias to describe how and when characteristics of the agent enacting justice are important to justice reasoning. The agent bias is defined as the effect on overall event justice perceptions of specific agent characteristics, over and above the effect via distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. For justice recipients to focus on agent characteristics rather than on the event being evaluated in terms of fairness is an unexplored bias in justice judgments. Agent warmth, competence, and past justice track record (entity justice) are identified as agent characteristics that influence justice judgments. Agent characteristics can influence overall event justice perceptions positively or negatively, depending on the ambiguity in terms of justice of the event and on its expectedness from a particular justice agent. Finally, we propose that agent bias is stronger when justice recipients use intuitive versus analytic information processing of event information. Our model of agent bias has important theoretical implications for theories of organizational justice and for other literatures, as well as important practical implications for organizations and managers.
    • Toward a theory of intraorganizational attention based on desirability and feasibility factors

      Barreto, Ilídio; Patient, David (Strategic Management Journal, 2013)
      Why would managers in the same firm differ in their attention to opportunity versus threat aspects of the same exogenous shock? Drawing on the attention‐based view, strategic issue diagnosis theory, and construal level theory, we propose and test a theoretical model of differentiated attention among managers within a firm driven by desirability (shock distance) and feasibility (capability perception) considerations. Managers more distant from the locus of the shock and managers with stronger ex ante perceptions regarding organizational capabilities to address the shock paid more attention to opportunity aspects and less attention to threat aspects. We also found subordination effects between shock distance and capability perception, and a moderating role of domain‐specific experience on the effects of capability perception.
    • Understanding envy through narrative fiction

      Patient, David; Lawrence, Thomas; Maitlis, Sally (Organization Studies, 2003)
      In this article, we explore the social construction of workplace envy through an analysis of its portrayal in a fictional narrative. Based on our examination of three excerpts from Richard Russo's novel Straight Man, we argue that envy is socially constructed in prominent and revealing episodes within broader organizational narratives. We further show that envy both serves as a catalytic emotion that engenders action and sensemaking, and at the same time, acts as a mechanism that reproduces the moral and cultural order within which it occurs.
    • Weber and legal rule evolution: The closing of the iron cage?

      Jennings, Devereaux; Schultz, Martin; Patient, David; Gravel, Caroline; Yuan, Ke (Organization Studies, 2005)
      Institutionalists have emphasized the importance of law for the spread of bureaucracy and examined its effects; but they have not examined the evolution of law as an institution in its own right, particularly from a Weberian standpoint. In this paper, we investigate whether or not there is an inexorable proliferation and refinement of rational legal rules within a law, as we have found to be the case with bureaucratic rules. In other words, are the same tendencies toward proliferation and refinement associated with the ‘closing of the iron cage’ found in the context of legal rules? An examination of all sections of a regional water law over a 90-year period shows that the number of law sections and the text covered by the sections actually declines over time, through alternating phases of gradual expansion followed by rapid collapse; that is via punctuated equilibrium. Most of the expansion is due to revisions of existing sections, rather than to births of new sections. Poisson models of births and event history models of revisions show that the sources of the proliferation within the law are, in fact, some of the same ones anticipated by Weber: the interpretation of the law by the courts, changes in political parties, and shock events such as war. But, in contrast to Weberian predictions, the result of this evolutionary process appears to be a law that is smaller, tighter and more functionally differentiated.
    • Workplace fairness versus unfairness: Examining the differential salience of facets of organizational justice

      Cojuharenco, Irina; Patient, David (Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology, 2013)
      In three studies, we show that employees bring to mind different facets of justice when focusing on workplace fairness versus unfairness. In Study 1, descriptions of recalled fair versus recalled unfair events are shown to be less multifaceted, more likely to include distributive justice, and less likely to include interactional justice. In Study 2, when asked to assess event fairness versus unfairness, participants posed fewer questions relating to interactional justice in relation to fair events. In Study 3, the results of a scenario experiment show that the relationship between unfairness/fairness and the salience of justice facets is mediated by the construal of work in more abstract terms in relation to fairness. We discuss the implications of our findings for organizational justice research and for organizations managing employee perceptions of fairness.