• Co-ownership of intellectual property: Exploring the value-appropriation and value-creation implications of co-patenting with different partners

      Belderbos, Rene; Cassiman, Bruno; Faems, Dries; Leten, Bart; Van Looy, Bart (Research Policy, 2014)
      Combining both interview data and empirical analyses at the patent and firm levels, we explore the value-appropriation and value-creation implications of R&D collaboration resulting in the co-ownership of intellectual property (i.e. co-patents). We make an explicit distinction between three different types of co-patenting partners: intra-industry partners, inter-industry partners, and universities. Our findings indicate that the value-appropriation challenges of IP sharing are clearly evident with intra-industry co-patenting, where partners are more likely to encounter overlapping exploitation domains. Co-patenting with universities is associated with higher market value, since appropriation challenges are unlikely to play a role and collaboration may signal novel technological opportunities. Although we find some evidence that co-patenting corresponds to higher (patent) value, patents co-owned with firms are significantly less likely to receive self-citations, indicating constraints on the future exploitation and development of co-owned technologies.
    • Exploring the Impact of Open Innovation on National Systems of Innovation - a Theoretical Analysis

      Wang, Yuandi; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Roijakkers, Nadine (Technological forecasting and social change, 2012)
      This paper investigates the impact of open innovation on national systems of innovation. The open innovation concept has become widely established among scholars and practitioners. However, an overview of its impact on national innovation systems is still lacking. Given that the innovating firm is at the core of national innovation systems, a better understanding of shifting innovation strategies at the firm level is of fundamental importance to the actions of policy-makers within the national innovation systems framework. Based on the main analytical approaches of national innovation systems and the current state of open innovation research, we argue that open innovation practices have at least three critical effects on national systems of innovation: (a) they reinforce its importance; (b) they improve its effectiveness; and (c) they diversify its networks.
    • IP Models to orchestrate innovation ecosystems: IMEC, a public research institute in nano-electronics

      Leten, Bart; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Roijakkers, Nadine; Clerix, André; Van Helleputte, J. (California Management Review, 2013)
      Companies increasingly organize innovation activities within innovation ecosystems. This study illustrates the central role of the IP-model that an orchestrator develops for the innovation ecosystem partners. The governance of IP is instrumental for the success of innovation ecosystems as it determines the value appropriation potential for the ecosystem partners and positively influences the success of innovation ecosystems. The insights are based on a case study of IMEC, a public research institute in nano-electronics. IMEC has an IP-based orchestration model for innovation ecosystems through multi-party research collaborations between public and private firms. (Keywords: Innovation Management, Intellectual Property, Innovation Networks, Innovation Ecosystems, Open Innovation)
    • Linking technology intelligence to open innovation

      Veugelers, Mark; Bury, J.; Viaene, Stijn (Technological forecasting and social change, 2010)
      The explosive growth of the Internet has led to a dramatic increase in data sources for (competitive) technology intelligence. Appropriate implementation and use of IT tools to gather and analyze these data is of key importance for the creation of actionable technology intelligence. A strategy to optimize investments in the identified technologies becomes of paramount importance if an organization wants to match knowledge and ideas originating from outside of the organization with internal core competences. Such a strategy can create competitive advantage by effectively linking technology intelligence to open innovation. We show how VIB, a life sciences research organization, has established technology intelligence processes to identify a multitude of external technologies of interest, which are subsequently “probed” for their potential and fit with VIB using real options reasoning, thereby supporting open innovation. Our methodology may be useful for other organizations which are considering implementing open innovation approaches.
    • Managing open innovation projects with science-based and market-based partners

      Du, Jingshu; Leten, Bart; Vanhaverbeke, Wim (Research Policy, 2014)
      This paper examines the relationship between (outside-in) open innovation and the financial performance of R&D projects, drawing on a unique dataset that contains information on the open innovation practices, management and performance of 489 R&D projects of a large European multinational firm. We introduce two types of open innovation partnerships – science-based and market-based partnerships – and examine their relationships with project financial performance. In addition, we investigate whether the open innovation—project performance relationships are influenced by the way how R&D projects are managed. Our results show that R&D projects with open innovation partnerships are associated with a better financial performance providing that they are managed in the most suitable way. Market-based partnerships are positively correlated with project performance if a formal project management process is used; however these partnerships are associated with a lower performance for loosely managed projects. In contrast, science-based partnerships are associated with higher project revenues for loosely managed projects only.
    • The state of corporate venturing: insights from a global study

      Battistini, Boris; Hacklin, Fredrik; Baschera, Pius (Research-Technology Management, 2013)
      Corporate venturing is on the rise. The growing intensity of corporate venturing activities presents extraordinary opportunities for corporations to redefine their innovation and investment practices. While corporate venturing has received considerable research attention, previous studies have often insufficiently captured the evolution of corporate venturing activities. This article presents the key insights of a global study of leading corporate venture units and offers a benchmark against which to compare current and future corporate venturing initiatives. We discuss the state of corporate venturing activities and practices at leading global corporations and outline the distinctive features of today's venture landscape.
    • When Research Meets Development: Antecedents and Implications of Transfer Speed

      Du, Jingshu; Leten, Bart; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Lopez, H. (Journal of Product Innovation Management, 2014)
      In this paper, we focus on the organization of new product development in large, R&Dintensive firms. In these firms, research is often conducted in dedicated projects at specialized research labs. Once research results are achieved by project teams, they are transferred to business units for further development and commercialization. We investigate the speed whereby research projects transfer their first research results to business units (hereafter: transfer speed). In particular, we analyze the antecedents and performance implications of transfer speed. Based on data of 503 research projects from a European R&D intensive manufacturing firm, our results suggest that a fast transfer speed (as measured by the time it takes for a research project to develop and transfer first research results to business units) is associated with a better research performance (as measured by the total number of transfers the research project generates). Moreover, we find that different types of external R&D partners— science-based and market-based partners— play distinct roles speeding up first research transfers. While market-based partnerships (customers and suppliers) generally contribute to a faster transfer of research results, science-based partnerships (universities and research institutions) only speed up research transfers of technologically very complex projects. Our results also show that early patent filings by research projects accelerate first research transfers