• The sandwich game: Founder-CEOs and forecasting as impression management

      Collewaert, Veroniek; Vanacker, Tom; Anseel, Frederik; Bourgois, Dries (Journal of Business Venturing, 2021)
      Drawing on impression management and social exchange theory, we examine the use of positively biased forecasts by (non-)founder-CEOs as an impression management tactic vis-à-vis their existing investors. Contrary to their non-founder counterparts, founder-CEOs identify more with the venture they founded and, therefore, experience greater instrumental and affective concerns about the long-term relationship with their investors. Consequently, we hypothesize that founder-CEOs will strategically provide less positively biased forecasts to their investors than non-founder-CEOs. Using two independent samples with revenue forecasts reported to different venture capital investors and a causal chain scenario study consisting of two experiments, we find consistent support for our hypothesis. Overall, this study provides new insights into the use of forecasts as a post-investment impression management tactic by distinct types of CEOs in entrepreneurial ventures.
    • The view of angels from above: Angel governance across institutional environments

      Collewaert, Veroniek; Filatotchev, Igor; Khoury, Theodore Andrew (Academy of Management Perspectives, 2021)
      Compared to scholarship focused on venture capital, we know less about angel investing and, in particular, less about how angels operate across institutional environments. Given the importance of angels within early-stage entrepreneurial investment growing globally, the field of angel governance is poised for further investigation. Thus, in this paper, we begin the conversation on angels and institutions and provide a framework for studying the post-investment governance role taken by angels amid institutional variation. First, we provide a review of the research conducted on angel-centered corporate governance. We then explore how the regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive institutional domains may influence angel governance arrangements. Within these domains, we isolate how the extent, frequency, and mode of angel engagement with the target venture can be shaped by the institutional environment.