• Calculating the total cost of ownership utilities: a case of interfirm cost management

      Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra; Peeters, Frank (Cost Management, 2005)
    • Can auditors mitigate information asymmetry in M&A's? An empirical analysis of the method of payment in belgian transactions

      Luypaert, Mathieu; Van Caneghem, Tom (Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, 2014)
    • Can deep reinforcement learning improve inventory management? Performance on lost sales, dual-sourcing, and multi-echelon problems

      Gijsbrechts, Joren; Boute, Robert; Van Mieghem, Jan A.; Zhang, Dennis J. (Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 2022)
      Problem definition: Is deep reinforcement learning (DRL) effective at solving inventory problems? Academic/practical relevance: Given that DRL has successfully been applied in computer games and robotics, supply chain researchers and companies are interested in its potential in inventory management. We provide a rigorous performance evaluation of DRL in three classic and intractable inventory problems: lost sales, dual sourcing, and multi-echelon inventory management. Methodology: We model each inventory problem as a Markov decision process and apply and tune the Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C) DRL algorithm for a variety of parameter settings. Results: We demonstrate that the A3C algorithm can match the performance of the state-of-the-art heuristics and other approximate dynamic programming methods. Although the initial tuning was computationally demanding and time demanding, only small changes to the tuning parameters were needed for the other studied problems. Managerial implications: Our study provides evidence that DRL can effectively solve stationary inventory problems. This is especially promising when problem-dependent heuristics are lacking. Yet, generating structural policy insight or designing specialized policies that are (ideally provably) near optimal remains desirable.
    • Capacity of clinical pathways: A strategic multi-level evaluation tool

      Cardoen, Brecht; Demeulemeester, Erik (Journal of Medical Systems, 2008)
    • Capital- and resource-constrained project scheduling with net present value optimization

      Leyman, Pieter; Vanhoucke, Mario (European Journal of Operational Research, 2017)
      In this paper, we study the capital-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows (CCPSPDC) and the capital- and resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows (CRCPSPDC). The objective of both problems is to maximize the project net present value (NPV), based on three cash flow models. Both problems include capital constraints, which force the project to always have a positive cash balance. Hence, it is crucial to schedule activities in such an order that sufficient capital is available.The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we propose three distinct cash flow models, which affect the capital availability during the project. Second, we introduce two new schedulers to improve capital feasibility, one for the CCPSPDC and one for the CRCPSPDC. The schedulers focus on delaying sets of activities, which cause cash outflows to be received at later time instances, in order to reduce capital shortages. Both schedulers are implemented as part of three metaheuristics from literature, in order to compare the metaheuristics' performance. Two penalty functions have been included, one to improve capital feasibility and another to improve deadline feasibility. Third, the proposed procedure has been tested on a large dataset and the added value of the schedulers has been validated. Managerial insights are provided with respect to the impact of key parameters.
    • Cascading Contingent Protection and Vertical Market Structure

      Sleuwaegen, Leo; Belderbos, Rene; Jie A Joen, Clive (International Journal of Industrial Organization, 1998)
      Cascading contingent protection may occur when protection of an upstream industry transfers injury to the downstream industry and increases the likelihood that this industry asks and receives protection. Cascading protection within a sequential petitioning model where the upstream industry acts as leader is examined. The analysis identifies market structure and the vertical linkage between the upstream and the downstream industry as important determinants of the occurrence of cascading protection. It is shown that the circumstances which make cascading protection more likely to occur also make it more likely that this protection has serious negative welfare consequences.
    • Ceci n'est pas contemporain

      Nissen, Aleydis (Kwintessens, 2015)
    • Centralization and effectiveness of reward management in multinational enterprises - Perceptions of HQ and subsidiary reward managers

      Tekieli, Michael; Festing, Marion; Baeten, Xavier (Journal of Personnel Psychology, 2018)
      Based on responses from 158 reward managers located at the headquarters or subsidiaries of multinational enterprises, the present study examines the relationship between the centralization of reward management decision making and its perceived effectiveness in multinational enterprises. Our results show that headquarters managers perceive a centralized approach as being more effective, while for subsidiary managers this relationship is moderated by the manager’s role identity. Referring to social identity theory, the present study enriches the standardization versus localization debate through a new perspective focusing on psychological processes, thereby indicating the importance of in-group favoritism in headquarters and the influence of subsidiary managers’ role identities on reward management decision making.
    • CEO succession and the CEO's commitment to the status quo

      Behr, Henning; Fehre, Kerstin (Business Research, 2019)
      Chief executive officer (CEO) commitment to the status quo (CSQ) is expected to play an important role in any firm’s strategic adaptation. CSQ is used often as an explanation for strategic change occurring after CEO succession: new CEOs are expected to reveal a lower CSQ than established CEOs. Although widely accepted in the literature, this relationship remains imputed but unobserved. We address this research gap and analyze whether new CEOs reveal lower CSQ than established CEOs. By analyzing the letters to the shareholders of German HDAX firms, we find empirical support for our hypothesis of a lower CSQ of newly appointed CEOs compared to established CEOs. However, our detailed analyses provide a differentiated picture. We find support for a lower CSQ of successors after a forced CEO turnover compared to successors after a voluntary turnover, which indicates an influence of the mandate for change on the CEO’s CSQ. However, against the widespread assumption, we do not find support for a lower CSQ of outside successors compared to inside successors, which calls for deeper analyses of the insiderness of new CEOs. Further, our supplementary analyses propose a revised tenure effect: the widely assumed relationship of an increase in CSQ when CEO tenure increases might be driven mainly by the event of CEO succession and may not universally and continuously increase over time, pointing to a “window of opportunity” to initiate strategic change shortly after the succession event. By analyzing the relationship between CEO succession and CEO CSQ, our results contribute to the CSQ literature and provide fruitful impulses for the CEO succession literature.
    • CEO's hebben ook nood aan mentoren

      Van Steerthem, Angie (HR Magazine, 2015)
    • De CFO: Waakhond of jachthond?

      Baeten, Xavier; De Ruyck, Bettina (Goed Bestuur & Toezicht, 2020)
      De beloning van de CFO krijgt veel minder aandacht dan die van de CEO. Xavier Baeten en Bettina de Ruyck verrichtten een onderzoek onder ruim honderd Nederlandse en Belgische beursgenoteerde ondernemingen. Dit artikel is een wake-up call voor commissarissen om bewust(er) beloningsafspraken te maken met zowel de CEO als de CFO.
    • The challenges of implementing strategy

      Verweire, Kurt (PM World Journal, 2018)
      Strategy implementation is a hot topic today. Managers spend billions of dollars on consulting and training in the hope to create brilliant strategies. But all too often brilliant strategies do not translate into brilliant performance. Strategy implementation ranks high on top managers’ agendas but is a topic that has not received sufficient attention in the academic world. It seems like academics assume that if a firm has a strategy, it gets implemented automatically. But talk with managers and most will admit that their organization is experiencing significant problems with translating their strategy into concrete activities and results. Why do so many companies struggle with strategy implementation? And what can be done about it? In this article, I first present five root causes why strategy implementation is so hard. Some of these root causes deal with the quality of the strategy itself, the others deal with the topic of implementation. Then, I present a new model that tackles many of these issues. This model consists of three building blocks and is called the Strategy-Alignment-Commitment model. The article zooms in on each of the three building blocks and provides useful suggestions how to increase the success rate of your strategy implementation programs.
    • Challenging corporate commitment to CSR: Do CEOs keep talking about corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues in times of the global financial crisis?

      Fehre, Kerstin; Weber, Florian (Management Research Review, 2016)
      Purpose In times of crisis, the fundamental principles of companies erode, leading to strategy shifts. This paper aims to examine whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on management’s agenda in times of crisis, indicating CSR embeddedness into corporate strategy. The focus is on the four pillars of CSR: social, environment, economy and governance. Design/methodology/approach Starting points are competing hypotheses based on shareholder and stakeholder theory. Chief executive officer (CEO) letters to shareholders of German HDAX firms from 2003 to 2012 are analyzed by means of computer-aided text analysis. Findings The authors find that CEOs talk less about CSR in times of crisis, especially about social and governance issues, indicating that CSR is not fully embedded into corporate strategy, and that, in times of crisis, other aspects gain more importance on management’s agenda.
    • Characterizing order processes of continuous review (s,S) and (r,nQ) policies

      Noblesse, Ann; Boute, Robert; Lambrecht, Marc; Van Houdt, Benny (European Journal of Operational Research, 2014)
      We provide a novel approach to characterize the order process of continuous review and inventory policies, and study the impact of the batching parameter (the value of Q or ) on the variability in the order process. First, we characterize the distribution of the time between orders, as well as the distribution of order sizes. We find that the coefficient of variation (cv) of the time between orders is smaller than the cv of the time between demands. The size of the orders can exhibit either variance amplification or dampening, compared to the demand sizes, depending on the demand size distribution and the value of the batching parameter. This may motivate a supplier to adjust his imposed fixed order cost to influence the batching size. Second, we look at the compound order process, defined by the number of units ordered during an arbitrary interval. The compound order process always exhibits variance amplification compared to the compound demand, which increases linearly in the batching parameter for large values of Q or ; for small values, the variance amplification is fluctuating. We point out that the time interval, during which the number of units ordered/demanded is observed, also impacts the level of variance amplification, and we show to what extent larger time intervals (resulting in more aggregation of the data) lead to lower values of variance amplification. Both perspectives (looking at time between orders and order quantities, or observing the compound order process) provide useful information for the upstream supplier.
    • Chinese Competition in OECD Markets: Impact on the Export Position and Export Strategy of OECD Countries

      Abraham, Filip; Van Hove, Jan (Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 2011)
      This paper primarily intends to broaden the scope of open innovation (OI) by connecting this concept to the literature on national systems of innovation (NSI). The main assumption behind this paper is that OI entails new types of governance structures that enable companies to tap into widely distributed knowledge bases through rapidly proliferating technology markets. Given that the current state of research within NSI literature has shifted towards a functional approach, the various proposed functional portfolios within NSI are supposed to coevolve with the mechanisms that coordinate innovation activities (i.e., hierarchical, network, and technology markets). Establishing a relationship between OI and NSI enables us to extend the functional NSI portfolio to accommodate the paradigmatic shift in governance structure represented by OI.
    • Choice for entrepreneurial career: Do cognitive styles matter?

      Deprez, Jana; Cools, Eva; Robijn, Wouter; Euwema, Martin (Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 2021)
      Upon graduation, students make the decision to either become an entrepreneur or an employee. Numerous studies have thus investigated personal and environmental factors that impact this decision. As cognitive styles have become more and more important in determining individual and organisational behaviour, and as they are presumed to provide new valuable insights over and above other personal factors, they provide the ideal focus to further explore this career choice. In this article, we aim to explore how creating, planning, and knowing cognitive style relate to entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions, and career choices. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in a first sample, we investigate the direct and indirect impact that cognitive styles have on entrepreneurial intention through attitudes. In our second sample, we look at how career preferences for entrepreneurship or a more traditional career as an employee are affected by cognitive styles. Using structural equation modelling analysis, this study finds evidence for the importance of creating cognitive style on entrepreneurial outcomes. Additionally, we find evidence for the relationship between planning cognitive style and wanting to be an employee. Knowing style does not lead to either preference. This paper extends the current knowledge on cognitive styles and entrepreneurship by analysing the impact of other cognitive styles than the predominantly used innovative styles and by also exploring its impact on important antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions, such as entrepreneurial attitude and career preferences.
    • Choice of scale by banks in financial centers

      Gulamhussen, Azzim (International Business Review, 2007)
    • Choosing governance modes for external technology sourcing

      Van de Vrande, Vareska J.A.; Lemmens, Charmianne E.A.V.; Vanhaverbeke, Wim (R & D Management, 2006)
    • Class Notes: Ten principles of good business process management

      vom Brocke, Jan; Schmiedel, Theresa; Recker, Jan; Trkman, Peter; Mertens, Willem; Viaene, Stijn (BP Trends, 2014)
    • A classification and new benchmark instances for the multi-skilled resource-constrained project scheduling problem

      Snauwaert, Jakob; Vanhoucke, Mario (European Journal of Operational Research, 2022)
      This paper studies and analyses the multi-skilled resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MSRCPSP). We present a new classification scheme based on an existing classification scheme for project scheduling problems. This allows researchers to classify all multi-skilled project scheduling problems and its extensions. Furthermore, we propose a new data generation procedure for the MSRCPSP and introduce multiple artificial datasets for varying research purposes. The new datasets are generated based on new multi-skilled resource parameters and are compared to existing benchmark datasets in the literature. A set of 7 empirical multi-skilled project instances from software and railway construction companies are collected in order to validate the quality of the artificial datasets. Solutions are obtained through a genetic algorithm and by solving a mixed-integer linear programming formulation with CPLEX 12.6. The hardness of the multi-skilled project instances is investigated in the computational experiments. An experimental analysis studies the impact of skill availability, workforce size and multi-skilling on the makespan of the project.