• Mind the gap - Assessing maturity of demand planning, a cornerstone of S&OP

      Vereecke, Ann; Vanderheyden, Karlien; Baecke, Philippe; Van Steendam, Tom (International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 2018)
      The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically validate a model for assessing demand planning maturity in organisations. The authors developed a maturity assessment model for demand planning through iterations of theoretical and empirical work, combining insights from literature and practitioners. An online survey is developed to validate the model using data from different industries. The authors identify six dimensions of demand planning maturity: data management, the use of forecasting methods, the forecasting system, performance management, the organisation and people management. The empirical study indicates that demand data are well managed and organisation readiness is high, yet improvements in the forecasting system and the management of forecast performance are needed. The results show a positive relationship between the size of an organisation and its demand planning maturity.
    • Mind the gap. The relevance of postchange periods for organizational sensemaking

      Wetzel, Ralf; Dievernich, Frank (Systems research and behavioral science, 2014)
      Up to 70% of change initiatives fail. This poor rate of success seems to be caused by a flawed management of change. One of the lacunae for a proper understanding of this situation is the way in which organizations perceive their own change. The activities in self‐perception have a crucial impact on the long‐term success of ongoing change activities in organizations. However, very little is known about these processes at the point when change initiatives have taken place. Nonetheless, it is the moment of retrospection that defines the relevance and continued impact of previous decisions. This paper explores this gap by introducing a qualitative in‐depth case study at the national branch of a multinational communications company, analysed by means of sensemaking theory combined with sociological systems theory and neo‐institutionalism. The case shows how retrospection defines the corridor for future success and reveals a previously ignored momentum of change.
    • Mirror, Mirror on the wall…

      Louche, Céline (European Business Forum, 2003)
    • Misaligned control: the role of management control system imitation in supply chains

      Reusen, Evelien; Stouthuysen, Kristof (Accounting Organizations and Society, 2017)
      This study investigates how interorganizational imitation influences management control decisions in a supply chain setting. Control design in interfirm exchanges is traditionally thought to be based on the principle of matching, where organizations install MCS that align with the transaction context. However, despite these theorized interrelationships, misaligned transactions commonly exist in practice. In this study, we propose a framework on the potential sources of such misalignment. We argue that control misalignment can be attributed to imitating behavior, by which organizations adopt MCS following the example of other organizations. Based on survey data collected from firms involved in a supply chain triad, we demonstrate that buyers control their upstream suppliers partially by imitating how their downstream customer controls them. Notably, buyers appear to imitate despite variations in transaction context, creating a basis for misalignment in line with our predictions.
    • Misresponse to Reversed and Negated Items in Surveys: A Review

      Weijters, Bert; Baumgartner, Hans (Journal of Marketing Research, 2012)
    • Mitigating reputational risks in supply chains

      Petersen, Henry L.; Lemke, Fred (2015)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore reputational risk that are borne in the supply chain and contribute to this contemporary but growing research stream.
    • Mobiliteit beduidend maken

      Van Laere, Kirby (HR Magazine, 2009)
    • Mobilizing cities towards a low-carbon future: Tambourines, carrots and sticks

      Azevedo, Isabel; Delarue, Erik; Meeus, Leonardo (Energy Policy, 2013)
      In the transition towards a low-carbon future in Europe, cities' actions are of major importance due to the prominence of urbanization, both in terms of population and in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, we need city authorities to act, by using their competences as policy makers as well as energy users. However, cities are still not moving as fast as one might expect, indicating the need for additional incentives to prompt local action. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present an overview of external incentives that might prompt cities to act and to highlight good practices that could be used in future initiatives. This paper first discusses how to evaluate the climate and energy performance of a city and how local authorities can contribute to its improvements. Moreover, it analyses the disincentives that local governments are confronted with, categorizing them as simple market failures, institutional failures and multi-agent failures. The paper then presents a survey of initiatives at national and EU levels to promote local action towards a low-carbon future; grouping them into tambourines, carrots and sticks. We focus on Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden because they are pioneering countries regarding energy policies for cities.
    • Mode generation rules to define activity flexibility for the integrated project staffing problem with discrete time/resource trade-offs

      Van Den Eeckhout, Mick; Maenhout, Broos; Vanhoucke, Mario (Annals of Operations Research, 2020)
      In this paper, we study the project staffing problem with discrete time/resource trade-offs to minimise the personnel staffing budget. This staffing problem embeds activity scheduling flexibility by incorporating the project scheduling problem into the personnel staffing problem to improve the quality of the staffing plan. In addition, we introduce extra demand scheduling flexibility resulting from the design of alternative execution modes for the activities, modelled via discrete time/resource trade-offs. In this way, the project manager is able to decide on the team size and duration for every activity. We propose a two-stage methodology to first design specific alternative activity modes using heuristic rules-of-thumb and subsequently we assess the resulting quality, i.e. the staffing cost, via the integrated composition of the project schedule and associated staffing plan. The heuristic mode generation rules determine the selection of a limited set of relevant activities and modes. The computational results show that the impact of these heuristic generation rules on the staffing budget is dependent on the defined relation between different activity alternatives for a particular activity and on the estimated characteristics of the activity base modes. We show that by focusing on a particular well-chosen subset of activity alternatives or on a particular subset of activities, high-quality solutions realising most of the potential cost improvements resulting from the discrete time/resource trade-offs can be derived with a reduced effort.
    • Modelisation of Bank Risk Management

      Thibeault, André (Revue de la Banque/Bank- en Financiewezen, 1996)
    • Modellen voor faling en succes: opbouw en gebruik

      Ooghe, Hubert; Joos, Philip (Cash Flow, 1993)
    • Motivated consumer innovativeness: Concept and measurement, and validation

      Vandecasteele, Bert; Geuens, Maggie (International Journal of Research in Marketing, 2010)
      Existing consumer innovativeness scales ignore the multitude of motivation sources of buying innovations. The objective of this paper is to incorporate different motivations into a multi-dimensional innovativeness scale to better account for the consumer–product relationship. An extensive literature review and five studies (with about 2600 respondents in total) indicate that four types of motivation underlie consumer innovativeness: functional, hedonic, social, and cognitive. The proposed 20-item four-dimensional Motivated Consumer Innovativeness (MCI) scale proves to be reliable and internally valid and does not seem to suffer from social desirability bias. Moreover, the results of the studies indicate the predictive validity of every MCI dimension. This new scale proves to measure more than existing consumer innovativeness scales; the different MCI dimensions predict innovative purchase intentions better than both traditional and recently developed innovativeness scales, and they disprove the general consensus that older people are always significantly less innovative than younger people. This MCI scale can serve as a tool for future research on efficiently and effectively segmenting and targeting (motivated innovative) consumers.
    • Multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling using RCPSP and SAT solvers

      Coelho, José; Vanhoucke, Mario (European Journal of Operational Research, 2011)
    • Multi-mode schedule optimisation for incentivised projects

      Kerkhove, Louis-Philippe; Vanhoucke, Mario (Computers and Industrial Engineering, 2020)
      This research presents a novel quantitative methodology to optimise the scheduling of subcontracted projects from the perspective of the contractor. Specifically, the scenario where the contractor’s remuneration is performance dependent is investigated. Based on the incentive methodology introduced by Kerkhove and Vanhoucke (2016), a novel mixed integer programming formulation as well as a greedy local search heuristic to solve the contractor’s problem are presented and tested in a computational experiment. For this experiment, a database containing 3,150 contract-project combinations with diverse structures has been created. The results from this experiment demonstrate the efficiency of the MIP formulation even for larger problem instances, as well as the influence of the project and contract structure on the contractor’s earnings.
    • Multicountry Multifactor Tests of the Factor Abundance Theory

      Bowen, Harry; Learner, E.; Sveikauskas, Leo (American Economic Review, 1987)
      Conceptually correct tests are performed of the Heckscher-Ohlin proposition that trade in commodities can be explained in terms of an interaction between factor input requirements and factor endowments. An exact specification of this interaction in a multicountry, multicommodity, multifactor world is derived in the form of the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek (H-O-V) theorem. The relationships are tested using data on the 367-order US input-output tables for 1967 and the 1967 trade and the 1966 supply of 12 resources for 27 countries. The Leontief-type sign and rank propositions, whether tested across countries or across factors, generally are not supported. The hypothesis that the H-O-V equations are exact also is not supported by the data. The data indicate errors in measurement in both trade and national factor supplies and favor the hypothesis of neutral technological differences across countries. The H-O-V equations are rejected in favor of weaker models that permit technological differences and measurement errors.
    • Multimode time-cost-robustness trade-off project scheduling problem under uncertainty

      Li, Xue; He, Zhengwen; Wang, Nengmin; Vanhoucke, Mario (Journal of Combinatorial Optimization, 2020)
      The time/cost trade-off problem is a well-known project scheduling problem that has been extensively studied. In recent years, many researchers have begun to focus on project scheduling problems under uncertainty to cope with uncertain factors, such as resource idleness, high inventory, and missing deadlines. To reduce the disturbance from uncertain factors, the aim of robust scheduling is to generate schedules with time buffers or resource buffers, which are capped by project makespan and project cost. This paper addresses a time-cost-robustness trade-off project scheduling problem with multiple activity execution modes under uncertainty. A multiobjective optimization model with three objectives (makespan minimization, cost minimization, and robustness maximization) is constructed and three propositions are proposed. An epsilon-constraint method-based genetic algorithm along with three improvement measures is designed to solve this NP-hard problem and to develop Pareto schedule sets, and a large-scale computational experiment on a randomly generated dataset is performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and the improvement measures. The final sensitivity analysis of three key parameters shows their distinctive influences on the three objectives, according to which several suggestions are given to project managers on the effective measures to improve the three objectives.