• Reforming the system of state assistance

      Sleuwaegen, Leo (Problems of Economic Transition, 2002)
      The question of state assistance took on particular significance in the 1980s, when the markets became more integrated. European experience has shown that state assistance can effectively assist the adaptation of enterprises to new economic conditions. At the same time, it has a negative influence on competition.
    • Reframing the role of lead users in radical innovations: an open innovation perspective

      Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Du, Jingshu (International Journal of Business Environment, 2010)
    • Regional cohesion in Europe? An analysis of how EU public RTD support influences the techno-economic regional landscape

      Clarysse, Bart (Research Policy, 2001)
      To date, European Union (EU) policy has been in favor of balanced regional growth. Since the 1980s, EU has adopted a policy which aims to strengthen the science and technology bases of the member states, necessary to increase their competitiveness. This EU research, technology and development (RTD) policy also has to contribute to other Community policies such as economic cohesion. Competitiveness and cohesion are two basic elements which are necessary for a balanced economic growth. Despite these objectives, many economic and technological differences still exist between European regions. To show these differences, we present in this paper a new typology of regions which are categorized on the basis of their current state of economic and technological development, their short-term evolution in technological development and their short-term economic growth. Further, we analyze whether these different types of regions tend to converge or diverge, both economically and technologically. Because technological development is the foremost factor used to explain economic growth we further analyze the role of EU RTD policy to diffuse technology from the economically more advanced to the less advanced regions. To explore this question, we use a unique set of regional participation and collaboration data in the EU Framework Programs. Regional participation data is used to measure the direct impact of EU RTD policy on technology development, while the collaboration data is analyzed by means of social network techniques as an indicator of technology diffusion. It is shown that the current RTD policy enforces the technological strength of the best performing regions, but plays a clear role in technology diffusion towards a limited group of catching up regions.
    • Regional electricity market integration - France - Belgium - Netherlands

      Meeus, Leonardo; Glachant, Jean-Michel; Belmans, Ronnie (Revue-E, 2006)
    • Regionale verschillen en convergentie in een federale monetaire unie

      Vanhoudt, P.; Buyst, Erik; Bilsen, V. (Bedrijfskunde, 2000)
    • Regulated cross-border transmission investment in Europe

      Meeus, Leonardo; Purchala, K.; Van Hertem, Dirk; Belmans, Ronnie (European Transactions on electrical power, 2006)
      In a liberalized market, generation and transmission investment decisions are decoupled, so that more grid is necessary. The European transmission grid is the backbone of the internal electricity market that besides serving the market has to ensure security of supply and to allow connecting renewables. Transmission grid investments are clearly needed, especially to increase the scarcely available cross-border transfer capacities. The regulatory framework in which these investments are to take place is discussed in this paper. The authors evaluate whether the regulation that is already in place will deliver the investments crucial for the success of the liberalization process in Europe
    • Regulatory experimentation in energy: Three pioneer countries and lessons for the green transition

      Schittekatte, Tim; Meeus, Leonardo; Jamasb, Tooraj; Llorca, Manuel (Energy Policy, 2021)
      Regulatory experimentation is a novel approach to enable innovation in the energy sector, while maintaining the protection of consumers. We define regulatory experimentation as a temporary removal of regulatory barriers. This can be in the form of a derogation from a rule, but it can also mean assigning responsibility to players to conduct activities that they are normally not allowed to engage in. The outcomes of regulatory experiments inform future regulation. In this paper, we discuss experiences with regulatory experimentation in the energy sector of three pioneering countries: the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Italy. We compare the implementations along six design dimensions: eligible project promoters, scope of the derogations, length of the derogations, administration of the experiments, the access to public funding, and transparency. We also discuss how the early approaches have evolved in these countries. Finally, we look ahead and discuss how regulatory experimentation can evolve in the future European context to contribute to the green transition.
    • Regulatory framework and business models for charging PEVs: infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships

      Gómez, Tómas; Momber, Ilan; Rivier, Michel; Sánchez-Miralles, á. (Energy Policy, 2011)
    • The regulatory framework for independent aggregators

      Schittekatte, Tim; Deschamps, Vincent; Meeus, Leonardo (The Electricity Journal, 2021)
      The importance of independent aggregators has been acknowledged in the recently adopted EU Clean Energy Package (CEP). The CEP obliges all Member States to develop a regulatory framework to allow these players to enter the market, but it leaves many of the details of implementation to the national level. In this paper, we take stock of current practices in regulating the contractual relationship between the supplier and the independent aggregator. The actions of an independent aggregator can cause an imbalance in a supplier’s portfolio, and suppliers have also asked for a compensation payment for forgone revenues. We find that the first issue has been handled with a perimeter correction in most countries, while the second issue is more controversial. The need for a compensation payment has been challenged and many different compensation models are being tested. We distinguish between the regulated, the corrected, and the contracted model. We conclude that more guidance is needed at EU-level for convergence on a more harmonized approach.
    • Rekruteringsgids in goede en slechte tijden

      Van Bruystegem, Kristien (HR Magazine, 2009)
    • Relationship quality and the theory of planned behavior models of behavioral intentions and purchase behavior

      De Cannière, Marie; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Geuens, Maggie (Journal of Business Research, 2009)
    • Reliability options: Can they deliver on their promises?

      Bhagwata, Pradyumna C.; Meeus, Leonardo (The Electricity Journal, 2019)
      Capacity mechanisms have been controversial in theory as well as practice. Lessons from experience with different capacity mechanisms led to the development of the reliability options. This mechanism promises two advantages over other types of capacity mechanisms. Firstly, it ensures the availability of capacity contracted via the capacity mechanism during scarcity. Secondly, the reliability option mechanism limits any energy market distortion due to its implementation and provides the consumer a hedge from high prices. We assess the ability of reliability options in delivering the two promises by analysing the reliability option designs in Italy and Ireland. We find that they deliver on the first promise but only partly on the second.
    • Relocation to get venture capital: A resource dependence perspective

      De Prijcker, Sofie; Manigart, Sophie; Collewaert, Veroniek; Vanacker, Tom (Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 2019)
      Using a resource dependence perspective, we theorize and show that non-venture-capital-backed ventures founded in U.S. states with a lower availability of venture capital (VC) are more likely to relocate to California (CA) or Massachusetts (MA)—the two VC-richest states—compared to ventures founded in states with a greater availability of VC. Moreover, controlling for self-selection, ventures that relocate to CA or MA subsequently have a greater probability of attracting initial VC compared to ventures that stay in their home state. We discuss the implications for theory, future research, and practice.
    • Remuneratie in turbulente tijden

      Baeten, Xavier (Management Scope, 2020)
      De crisis vraagt om contemplatie. Professor Xavier Baeten van Vlerick Business School komt met een pleidooi over de noodzaak om remuneratiebeleid te herijken.
    • Rent Control and Virtual Prices. A Case Study for Interwar Belgium

      Buyst, Erik; Bettendorf, L. (Journal of Economic History, 1997)
    • The reputational effects of analysts' stock recommendations and credit ratings: Evidence from operational risk announcements in the financial industry

      Barakat, Ahmed; Ashby, Simon; Fenn, Paul (International Review of Financial Analysis, 2018)
      This paper investigates whether more favorable stock recommendations and higher credit ratings serve as a reputational asset or reputational liability around reputation-damaging events. Analyzing the reputational effects of operational risk announcements incurred by financial institutions, we find that firms with a “Buy” stock recommendation or “Speculative Grade” credit rating are more likely to incur an equity-based reputational damage. In addition, firms with lower credit ratings incur a much more severe debt-based reputational damage. Moreover, credit ratings are more instrumental in mitigating the debt-based reputational damage caused by fraud incidents or incurred in non-banking activities. Furthermore, the misconduct of senior management could demolish the reputation of firms with less heterogeneous stock recommendations. Finally, credit ratings serve as an equity-based reputational asset in the short term but turn into an equity-based reputational liability in the long term. Overall, our analysis reveals that stock recommendations represent a reputational burden and credit ratings act as a reputational shield; however, the persistence and magnitude of such reputational effects are moderated by time and event characteristics.
    • A resampling method to improve the prognostic model of end-stage kidney disease: A better strategy for imbalanced data

      Shi, Xi; Qu, Tingyu; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; van den Akker, Marjan; De Moor, Bart (Frontiers in Medicine, 2022)
      Background: Prognostic models can help to identify patients at risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at an earlier stage to provide preventive medical interventions. Previous studies mostly applied the Cox proportional hazards model. The aim of this study is to present a resampling method, which can deal with imbalanced data structure for the prognostic model and help to improve predictive performance. Methods: The electronic health records of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) older than 50 years during 2005–2015 collected from primary care in Belgium were used (n = 11,645). Both the Cox proportional hazards model and the logistic regression analysis were applied as reference model. Then, the resampling method, the Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique-Edited Nearest Neighbor (SMOTE-ENN), was applied as a preprocessing procedure followed by the logistic regression analysis. The performance was evaluated by accuracy, the area under the curve (AUC), confusion matrix, and F3 score. Results: The C statistics for the Cox proportional hazards model was 0.807, while the AUC for the logistic regression analysis was 0.700, both on a comparable level to previous studies. With the model trained on the resampled set, 86.3% of patients with ESKD were correctly identified, although it was at the cost of the high misclassification rate of negative cases. The F3 score was 0.245, much higher than 0.043 for the logistic regression analysis and 0.022 for the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusion: This study pointed out the imbalanced data structure and its effects on prediction accuracy, which were not thoroughly discussed in previous studies. We were able to identify patients with high risk for ESKD better from a clinical perspective by using the resampling method. But, it has the limitation of the high misclassification of negative cases. The technique can be widely used in other clinical topics when imbalanced data structure should be considered.
    • Research on Employee Performance Management in MNC's: A Call for Expanding the Psychological Perspective. A research note

      Dewettinck, Koen; Remue, Jonathan (European Journal of International Management, 2011)
    • Reservation and allocation policies for influenza vaccines

      Samii, Behzad; Pibernik, Richard; Yadav, Prashant; Vereecke, Ann (European Journal of Operational Research, 2012)
      This research investigates the impact of alternative allocation mechanisms that can be employed in the context of vaccine inventory rationing. Available vaccine inventory can be allocated to arrivals from high priority (target groups such as healthcare professionals) and low priority (non-target groups) demand classes using Partitioned Allocation (PA), Standard Nesting (SN), and Theft Nesting (TN). In any one of the mechanisms, a part of the available inventory is reserved for the exclusive use of the high priority demand class. They differ, however, in how the unreserved portion of the inventory is utilized: Under PA, demand from the high (low) priority class consumes only the reserved (unreserved) quantity. Under SN, demand from the high priority class first consumes the reserved quantity; once and if this quantity is exhausted, high priority demand competes with low priority demand for the remaining inventory. Under TN the sequence of allocation is reversed: both demand classes first compete for the unreserved inventory. Once this portion of inventory is exhausted, high priority demand is fulfilled from the reserved inventory and low priority demand is rejected. We develop service level (probability of fulfilling the entire demand) and fill rate (fraction of demand fulfilled) expressions for all three allocation mechanisms. Based on these expressions, numerical analyses are conducted to illustrate which allocation mechanism a health planner should choose depending on the availability of vaccines, and how the health planner should set the reserved quantity for the high priority class. We observe that (1) there exist certain conditions under which one of the allocation mechanisms outperforms the others and (2) this effect is determined by the decision maker’s choice of the performance measure.
    • Resilience in the face of uncertainty: Early lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic

      Bryce, Cormac; Ring, Patrick; Ashby, Simon; Wardman, Jamie (Journal of Risk Research, 2020)
      The transboundary dynamics of COVID-19 present an unprecedented test of organisational resilience. In the UK, the National Health Service (NHS), a talisman of collective fortitude against disease and illness, has struggled to cope with inadequate provision of virus tests, ventilators, and personal protective equipment needed to fight the pandemic. In this paper, we reflect on the historic dynamics and strategic priorities that have undermined the NHS’s attempts to navigate these troubled times. We invoke the organisational resilience literature to address ‘the good, the bad and the ugly’ of preparedness in readiness and response to the current pandemic. In particular, we draw on Meyer’s (1982) seminal work on ‘adaptation to jolts’, excavating current preparedness failings. We argue an overreliance on perceived efficiency benefits of ‘lean production’ and ‘just in time’ continuity planning superseded strategic redundancy and slack in the system. This strategic focus was not simply the result of a failure in foresight, but rather a failure to act adaptively on knowledge of the known threats and weaknesses spotlighted by earlier projections of an inevitable pandemic threat. In conclusion, we consider how the UK Government and NHS must now undergo a phase of ‘readjustment’ in Meyer’s terms, in light of these failings. We suggest that independent responsibility for national future preparedness should be handed to the NHS free from political interference. This would operate under the umbrella of a national emergency preparedness, resilience and response public body, enshrined in law, and similar in governance to the current Bank of England. This will help ensure that foresight is accompanied by durability and fortitude in safeguarding the UK against future pandemic threats.