• Building absorptive capacity to organise inbound open innovation in traditional industries

      Spithoven, André; Clarysse, Bart; Knockaert, Mirjam (Technovation, 2010)
    • Business modeling as configuring heuristics

      Loock, M.; Hacklin, Fredrik (Advances in Strategic Management, 2015)
      While recent research has referred to a cognitive view on ‘business modeling’, it remains unclear in specifying the cognitive foundations of how such modeling happens. This paper proposes building on heuristics as models of individual cognition, which have proved effective foundations of adaptive individual and managerial behaviors. By also drawing on gestalt theory to specify principles of modeling as rule-based form giving, we propose business modeling as a managerial cognitive process of configuring heuristics. The paper makes three contributions. First, we introduce heuristics to the business modeling literature, and so provide an established theory of adaptive individual behavior that strengthens the cognitive foundations of business modeling. Second, we conceptualize and theorize on the cognitive activity of business modeling as an iterative process of configuring heuristics by applying gestalt principles. Although the literature on business models has referred to the theories of configurations and gestalt, it has been left to this work to make the theoretical linkages between heuristics, gestalt theory and business modeling explicit. Third, our work contributes to the micro-foundations of the cognitive processes underlying business modeling and thus to broader accounts of adaptive managerial behaviors.
    • Centralization and effectiveness of reward management in multinational enterprises - Perceptions of HQ and subsidiary reward managers

      Tekieli, Michael; Festing, Marion; Baeten, Xavier (Journal of Personnel Psychology, 2018)
      Based on responses from 158 reward managers located at the headquarters or subsidiaries of multinational enterprises, the present study examines the relationship between the centralization of reward management decision making and its perceived effectiveness in multinational enterprises. Our results show that headquarters managers perceive a centralized approach as being more effective, while for subsidiary managers this relationship is moderated by the manager’s role identity. Referring to social identity theory, the present study enriches the standardization versus localization debate through a new perspective focusing on psychological processes, thereby indicating the importance of in-group favoritism in headquarters and the influence of subsidiary managers’ role identities on reward management decision making.
    • CEO succession and the CEO's commitment to the status quo

      Behr, Henning; Fehre, Kerstin (Business Research, 2019)
      Chief executive officer (CEO) commitment to the status quo (CSQ) is expected to play an important role in any firm’s strategic adaptation. CSQ is used often as an explanation for strategic change occurring after CEO succession: new CEOs are expected to reveal a lower CSQ than established CEOs. Although widely accepted in the literature, this relationship remains imputed but unobserved. We address this research gap and analyze whether new CEOs reveal lower CSQ than established CEOs. By analyzing the letters to the shareholders of German HDAX firms, we find empirical support for our hypothesis of a lower CSQ of newly appointed CEOs compared to established CEOs. However, our detailed analyses provide a differentiated picture. We find support for a lower CSQ of successors after a forced CEO turnover compared to successors after a voluntary turnover, which indicates an influence of the mandate for change on the CEO’s CSQ. However, against the widespread assumption, we do not find support for a lower CSQ of outside successors compared to inside successors, which calls for deeper analyses of the insiderness of new CEOs. Further, our supplementary analyses propose a revised tenure effect: the widely assumed relationship of an increase in CSQ when CEO tenure increases might be driven mainly by the event of CEO succession and may not universally and continuously increase over time, pointing to a “window of opportunity” to initiate strategic change shortly after the succession event. By analyzing the relationship between CEO succession and CEO CSQ, our results contribute to the CSQ literature and provide fruitful impulses for the CEO succession literature.
    • De CFO: Waakhond of jachthond?

      Baeten, Xavier; De Ruyck, Bettina (Goed Bestuur & Toezicht, 2020)
      De beloning van de CFO krijgt veel minder aandacht dan die van de CEO. Xavier Baeten en Bettina de Ruyck verrichtten een onderzoek onder ruim honderd Nederlandse en Belgische beursgenoteerde ondernemingen. Dit artikel is een wake-up call voor commissarissen om bewust(er) beloningsafspraken te maken met zowel de CEO als de CFO.
    • Clusters in the biopharmaceutical industry: Toward a new method of analysis

      Erden, Zeynep; von Krogh, Georg (Drug Discovery Today, 2011)
      Clusters are groups of co-located and interconnected firms and institutions linked by commonalities in their strategies and complementarities in their activities and resources. There are several reasons for the geographical clustering of firms in the biopharmaceutical industry. This review unpacks some advantages and disadvantages of cluster participation, and proposes a new method to enable managers and researchers to identify clusters in the biopharmaceutical industry.
    • Coevolutionary cycles of convergence: an extrapolation from ICT industry

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Marxt, Christian; Fahrni, F. (Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 2009)
      Convergence between technologies can be regarded as an increasingly emerging trend, and has received particular attention in the coming-together of previously distinct products and solutions within the information and communication technologies (ICT) industry. In previous research, the overall impact of the convergence phenomenon remains ambiguous. Whereas some scholars suggest convergence to be associated with disintegration, entry and growth, others relate the phenomenon to opposite effects, such as consolidation and shakeouts. This inconsistency in managerial conceptions on convergence formulates a need for an integrated understanding. Within a multi-case study approach, the convergence within ICT has been observed through examining the coevolution of actors in a converging environment, and patterns in innovation dynamics and managerial responses have been identified. In reflection with existing models of innovation cycles, a model for convergence innovation processes is elaborated and discussed. In particular, the reasoning within the ICT case set is transferred onto the currently emerging entrepreneurial activities in the intersection between nano- and bio-technologies (NBT), resulting in a comparison between ICT and NBT convergences, and deriving recommendations from a retrospective to a predictive context.
    • Combining Entrepreneurial and Scientific Performance in Academia: Towards a compound Matthew Effect encompassing both activity realms?

      Van Looy, Bart; Ranga, M.; Callaert, J.; Debackere, Koenraad; Zimmermann, Edwin (Research Policy, 2004)
    • Comparing the Developments of Economics during the 20th Century in Belgium and the Netherlands

      Buyst, Erik; Maes, I.; Plasmeijer, H.; Schoorl, E. (History of Political Economy, 2005)
    • Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions: the influence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and attitudes

      Izquierdo, Edgar; Buelens, Marc (International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2011)
    • Convergence and interdisciplinarity in innovation management: a review, critique, and future directions

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Wallin, Martin (The Service Industries Journal, 2013)
      Knowledge integration in the interstices between different disciplinary fields is becoming a critical challenge to innovation management. As disciplines converge into new hybrid fields, such as information and communication technology or nano-biotechnology, it ultimately creates winners and losers, be they new firms that displace incumbents or individual scientists better positioned to reap rewards from new targeted grants. While received literature recognizes the importance of interdisciplinarity, little is known about its theoretical and conceptual antecedents. To meet this challenge, we first review and critique the literature on interdisciplinarity from a knowledge-based perspective, and, second, identify challenges for innovation management and formulate implications for further research. In particular, we outline how individual and team-level heterogeneity should be addressed. By adopting such a micro-level perspective, innovation management can embrace heterogeneity and effectively unlock the true value of interdisciplinary knowledge.
    • Core rigidities in the innovation process: a structured benchmark on knowledge management challenges

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Inganäs, Martin; Marxt, Christian; Pluss, Adrian (International Journal of Technology Management, 2009)
      A changing industrial and technological environment implies a need for a diligent acquisition of dynamic capabilities. While tackling exogenous discontinuities is imperative for success, the problem often lies in the firms' internal processes, where existing core competences might deteriorate to core rigidities. The presented contribution is two-fold: first, a conceptual framework for assessing knowledge-related rigidities along the innovation process is introduced, which is derived from the stage-gate model for new product development. The innovation process is evaluated within cases of four industry firms, with emphasis on identifying problem areas, core rigidities and resulting challenges along the entire way from idea to market launch. Secondly, the challenges are clustered, providing a basis for deriving optimisation approaches, as well as summarised and compared across the cases. In all phases of the innovation process, the benchmark with other firms seems to ease the process of creating awareness on rigidities and to provide a basis for managerial improvement.
    • Corporate governance and the current crisis

      Haspeslagh, Philippe (Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 2010)
    • Creativity and regional innovation: Evidence from EU regions

      Sleuwaegen, Leo; Boiardi, Priscilla (Research Policy, 2014)
      We analyse the role of creative workers in the region as a source and foundational element of regional innovation in the European Union. We show the empirical relevance of this factor – which we label inspiration – within the structure of a recursive model of regional innovation for a set of 83 European regions. We show that, when differentiated from the presence of regional intelligence – as measured by the availability of human capital – and from technological infrastructure, inspiration, along with the degree of development of national and regional institutions, has the strongest direct and indirect effects on regional patenting activity.
    • Credit Riks Management: Level 1 - Level 2

      Thibeault, André (Revue de la Banque/Bank- en Financiewezen, 1998)
    • Cross-border private equity syndication: Institutions and learning

      Meuleman, Miguel; Wright, Mike (Journal of Business Venturing, 2011)
      Private equity (PE) has become an increasingly international phenomenon but there is a lack of research that looks at the process by which PE firms invest across borders. We aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining the role of institutional context and organizational learning as determinants of cross-border PE syndication. We examine these issues by studying the international expansion by later-stage UK PE investors into continental Europe over the period 1990 to 2006. Our results indicate that institutional context (in terms of the number of PE firms in the local environment and the presence of investment bankers in the local market) and organizational learning (in terms of the PE firm's experience in the host country; the PE firm's multinational experience; and the number of investment managers per portfolio company; but not the presence of local offices) are significantly related to the use of cross-border syndicates. Implications for theory and practice are suggested.
    • CSR strategies in response to competitive pressures

      Dupire, Marion; M'Zali, Bouchra (Journal of Business Ethics, 2018)
      Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) a tool for strategic positioning? While CSR is sometimes used as part of a differentiation strategy, this article analyzes which specific CSR strategies arise in response to competitive pressures. The results suggest that competitive pressures lead firms to increase their positive social actions without necessarily decreasing their social weaknesses. This positive impact varies with specific dimensions of CSR and industry specificities: (1) Competition improves social performance toward core stakeholders to a greater extent than social performance toward peripheral stakeholders. (2) This effect is more pronounced in B2C industries than in other industries. (3) Competition leads firms in “dirty” industries to ignore environmental initiatives.
    • David vs. Goliath? Smaller European Exporting firms facing Asian competition on global markets

      Abraham, Filip; Van Hove, Jan; Studnickay, Zuzanna (Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 2016)
      This paper analyses the presence of Asian competition in the export markets of Belgian manufacturing firms between 1998 and 2010. We focus on the value of exports at the firm level where we consider both the intensive and the extensive margin. Within Asia a distinction is made between China, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. We find that Asian competition matters significantly for Belgian export companies.