This study shows that people experiencing financial dissatisfaction may choose and consume food for its energy value. Because money and food are closely related, exchangeable resources, financially dissatisfied people may be motivated to replenish their need for financial resources by consuming caloric resources or food energy. Five experiments provide support for this hypothesis across various measures of caloric desire and actual eating behavior. The findings have notable implications for marketing and public policy. Whereas marketing researchers have increasingly investigated the interplay of taste and health considerations in food consumption, this research demonstrates the importance of investigating food energy considerations.
This paper discusses the importance of reputational risk in the supply chain. It also explains the ways it can be mitigated via CSR. This is the management baseline that adds tremendous value for theory builders and present and future managers. Having the education of Master students in mind, the authors outline three specific teaching units that bring the conceptual underpinnings alive in an interactive learning environment.
Traditional CRM models often ignore the correlation that could exist among the purchasing behavior of surrounding prospects. Hence, a generalized linear autologistic regression model can be used to capture this interdependence and improve the predictive performance of the model. In particular, customer acquisition models can benefit from this. These models often suffer from a lack of data quality due to the limited amount of information available about potential new customers. Based on a customer acquisition model of a Japanese automobile brand, this study shows that the extra value resulting from incorporating neighborhood effects can vary significantly depending on the granularity level on which the neighborhoods are composed. A model based on a granularity level that is too coarse or too fine will incorporate too much or too little interdependence resulting in a less than optimal predictive improvement. Since neighborhood effects can have several sources (i.e. social influence, homophily and exogeneous shocks), this study suggests that the autocorrelation can be divided into several parts, each optimally measured at a different level of granularity. Therefore, a model is introduced that simultaneously incorporates multiple levels of granularity resulting in even more accurate predictions. Further, the effect of the sample size is examined. This shows that including spatial interdependence using finer levels of granularity is only useful when enough data is available to construct stable spatial lag effects. As a result, extending a spatial model with multiple granularity levels becomes increasingly valuable when the data sample becomes larger.
Attitudes and preferences do not always prove to be good predictors of actual behavior. Following the call for moderating variables to get a better idea of when and for whom attitude–behavior consistency exists, the current paper focuses on mood as a potential situational moderator. Results from three online studies demonstrate that (1) mood significantly affects attitude–behavior consistency, (2) not the decision style that mood activates (i.e., a deliberative style under negative mood versus an intuitive decision style under positive mood), but a fit in decision style respondents use during attitude formation and decision making underlies this mood effect, and (3) this mood effect holds for individuals who tend to experience their emotions intensively (i.e., high affect intensity individuals), but reverses for individuals who experience their emotions less intensively (i.e., low affect intensity individuals).
Pham Tuan, Michel; Geuens, Maggie; De Pelsmacker, Patrick (2013)
It has been observed that ad-evoked feelings exert a positive influence on brand attitudes. To investigate the empirical generalizability of this phenomenon, we analyzed the responses of 1576 consumers to 1070 TV commercials from more than 150 different product categories. The findings suggest five empirical generalizations. First, ad-evoked feelings indeed have a substantial impact on brand evaluations, even under conditions that better approximate real marketplace settings than past studies did. Second, these effects are both direct and indirect, with the indirect effects largely linked to changes in attitude toward the ad. Third, these effects do not depend on the level of involvement associated with the product category. However, fourth, the effects are more pronounced for hedonic products than utilitarian products. Finally, these effects do not depend on whether the products are durables, nondurables, or services, or whether the products are search goods or experience goods.
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes. The authors test whether this symbol counters the pervasive effect of product placement on purchase intention. Study 1 shows that the symbol does not prompt resistance to the influence of product placement. This is because the majority of consumers neither notice nor comprehend the symbol. In Study 2, two training methods are tested to increase the symbol’s effectiveness: (1) verbal label training and (2) a combination of verbal label training and information training. The addition of information training is necessary to increase the symbol’s noticeability, whereas verbal label training helps increase the symbol’s comprehensibility and effectiveness in activating persuasion knowledge and decreasing purchase intention. Finally, the results provide evidence that brand recall is crucial for resistance to product placement, suggesting the importance of brand recall as a moderator of resistance processes.
Weijters, Bert; Geuens, Maggie; Baumgartner, Hans (2013)
Nowadays, an increasing number of information technology tools are implemented in order to support decision making about marketing strategies and improve customer relationship management (CRM). Consequently, an improvement in CRM can be obtained by enhancing the databases on which these information technology tools are based. This study shows that data augmentation with situational variables of the purchase occasion can significantly improve purchasing behavior predictions for a home vending company. Three dimensions of situational variables are examined: physical surroundings, temporal perspective and social surroundings respectively represented by weather, time, and salesperson variables. The smallest, but still significant, increase in predictive performance was measured by enhancing the model with time variables. Besides the moment of the day, this study shows that the incorporation of weather variables, and more specifically sunshine, can also improve the accuracy of a CRM model. Finally, the best improvement in purchasing behavior predictions was obtained by taking the salesperson effect into account using a multilevel model.
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