As the elderly care sector is characterized by several challenges, rethought and restructured organizations and institutions and thus innovation are necessary. This study investigated (1) what innovation in the elderly care sector means and (2) which factors determine the innovativeness of elderly care organizations. Our goal was to develop a framework to catch innovation and explain the capacity for innovation in the elderly care sector. Via case studies within five Flemish elderly care organizations, the applicability of the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory was examined. The results showed that organizations partially acted as CASs, but totally acting as CASs was restrained by top-down forces, procedures, and regulations.
Although there is a high level of practitioner, policymaker, and scholar interest in social entrepreneurship, most research is based on case studies and success stories of successful social entrepreneurs in a single country. We develop a methodology to measure population-based social entrepreneurship activity (SEA) prevalence rates and test it in 49 countries. Our results provide insights into institutional and individual drivers of SEA. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) methodology of Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA), we find that countries with higher rates of traditional entrepreneurial activity also tend to have higher rates of social entrepreneurial activity. We develop a broad definition of social entrepreneurship and then explore types based on social mission, revenue model, and innovativeness.
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