• An effective board makes the necessary trade-offs

      Van den Berghe, Lutgart; Levrau, Abigail (2013)
      The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact that individual raters have on maturity assessments of organizations in the particular context of business process management (BPM). The hypotheses tested relate to the extent of the impact of individuals on maturity score variances and with the enforcing effect of organizational size on the disagreement among employees within organizations. Eight multilevel random-effects analyses for eight separate maturity dimensions clarify the intra-class correlation (agreement) within organizations. The analyses are based on a data set with a strictly hierarchical two-level data structure of employees (1755) nested within organizations (61). Results show that variance within organizations is significantly larger than zero and is even more important than variance between organizations. We conclude that a large individual background effect exists when rating an organization's business process maturity. In addition, we find that the larger the organizations are, the more disagreement within organizations is visible. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Corporate governance and initial public offerings in Belgium

      Fassin, Yves; Levrau, Abigail; Van den Berghe, Lutgart (2012)
      Internet adoption in China is booming and purchasing power is growing steadily. Increasing numbers of Chinese turn to the Internet to search for information prior to a purchase. Based on 32 h of interviews with students and business professionals in China, and a questionnaire completed by a sample of 1140 students in Beijing and Belgium, our explorative study demonstrates that fundamental cultural, behavioral, economic, technical, and other characteristics of China cause significant differences between Chinese and Western Europeans in their online search process for information prior to a purchase. The differences occur in frequency, goal, types of information sought, types of websites used, search engine usage patterns, and contribution of user opinions. This has important implications for marketing practitioners in China, especially for multinational corporations that enter China and that are not familiar yet with the Chinese environment. Suggestions for future research are also provided.
    • Corporate Governance in a Globalising World : Convergence or Divergence? A European Perspective

      Carchon, Steven; Levrau, Abigail; Van Der Elst, Christoph; Van den Berghe, Lutgart (2002)
      Corporate Governance In A Globalising World: Convergence Or Divergence? presents a broad and multi-disciplinary debate on corporate governance systems by integrating academic viewpoints, statistical evidence, as well as field surveys. Based on a large number of publications and studies, the opinions of researchers are grouped into three categories: those that believe in a convergence into the direction of the market-oriented model (with the Anglo-American model as the reference base), those that opt for another type of convergence, namely in the direction of a hybrid corporate governance model (based on cross-reference between different leading governance models), and those that do not believe in global convergence but adhere to diversity of governance models.$ To test the validity of these three possible routes for the development of corporate governance systems, the authors approached this question from an objective perspective based on statistical evidence. The governance characteristics examined herein include the role of capital markets, shareholding structures and influence, shareholder rights, the market for corporate control and anti-takeover mechanisms, the board system, disclosure rules and accountability issues.$ To complete this statistical analysis the authors include a field survey based on an inquiry with experts from business, academic and public institutions. Questions focus on the future outlook of corporate governance within the European Union, as well as on the role and format of corporate governance codes and recommendations.
    • Corporate governance: Het Belgisch perspectief

      Van den Berghe, Lutgart; Levrau, Abigail (1999)
      Corporate governance is niet meer weg te denken uit de actualiteit en stelt het bedrijfsleven voor een fundamentele uitdaging. Centraal in het begrip staat de verdeling en de uitoefening van de macht binnen de onderneming. In België resulteerde het corporate governance-debat in drie codes, opgesteld door het Verbond van Belgische Ondernemingen, de Commissie voor het Bank- en Financiewezen en de Beurs van Brussel. Het eerste hoofdstuk plaatst de Belgische normen in het bredere kader van internationale aanbevelingen en ervaringen rond corporate governance. Daaropvolgend onderzoeken de auteurs de impact van de Belgische normen voor ons bedrijfsleven. Op basis van een analyse van de jaarverslagen gaan ze na in welke mate ondernemingen deze recent gepubliceerde gedragscodes volgen. Institutionele beleggers, die in grote mate het debat rond corporate governance op gang hebben gebracht, en het aandeelhouderschap als indicatie van de feitelijke machtstructuren in de vennootschap, komen - bekeken vanuit een Belgisch perspectief - in de laatste hoofdstukken aan bod.
    • Een periodieke evaluatie van de raad van bestuur

      Levrau, Abigail; du Bus de Warnaffe, Sibylle (2007)
    • Fine-tuning board effectiveness is not enough

      Van den Berghe, Lutgart; Levrau, Abigail (2013)
      This study is a cost-analysis that calculates the impact of three interventions for patients identified as ‘at risk’ for Acute Coronary Syndrome - a cardio-vascular exercise programme, point-of-care digital diagnostics, and telemonitoring adherence tools. The methodology utilizes a model of the annualized costs of ACS for the entire treatment value chain, and measures the impact of the three interventions by the change in treatment cost, incremental net benefit, and QALY. The results demonstrate that the largest impact is measured when all three interventions are utilized simultaneously producing a cumulative savings of €4424 and 0.126 QALY per patient. We also find a significant decrease in Emergency Room visits by 15% and changes in rates of utilization of Catharization (?59%), Angioplasty (?59%), Bypass (?17%), Medication (?14%) and Rehabilitation (?13%).
    • Identifying key determinants of effective boards of directors

      Levrau, Abigail; Van den Berghe, Lutgart (2009)
    • Promoting effective board decision-making, the essence of good governance

      Van den Berghe, Lutgart; Levrau, Abigail (2013)
      Emotional advertising is generally believed to be persuasive. However, not all emotional advertising is equally effective. Previous research has illustrated the importance of the pleasure dimension of emotions in the sense that positive emotions usually induce more positive attitudes than negative emotions. This paper deals with another dimension of emotions – the ego-other-focus dimension of emotions – referring to the degree to which these emotions make people see themselves as independent from or interdependent with others in a specific situation. Our findings indicate that, for a privately consumed product, ads evoking an egofocused emotion score better than ads evoking an other-focused emotion, whereas the reverse is true for a publicly consumed product. This match between product and emotion does not matter for introverts, but is important for extravert people. As such, we show that not only the pleasure dimension, but also the ego-other-focus dimension of emotions determines the effectiveness of emotional advertising.
    • Reinventing board effectiveness: from best practice to best fit

      Van den Berghe, Lutgart; Levrau, Abigail (2013)
    • The appropriate board chair: a reality check

      Levrau, Abigail; Van den Berghe, Lutgart (2013)
      This research investigates the impact of alternative allocation mechanisms that can be employed in the context of vaccine inventory rationing. Available vaccine inventory can be allocated to arrivals from high priority (target groups such as healthcare professionals) and low priority (non-target groups) demand classes using Partitioned Allocation (PA), Standard Nesting (SN), and Theft Nesting (TN). In any one of the mechanisms, a part of the available inventory is reserved for the exclusive use of the high priority demand class. They differ, however, in how the unreserved portion of the inventory is utilized: Under PA, demand from the high (low) priority class consumes only the reserved (unreserved) quantity. Under SN, demand from the high priority class first consumes the reserved quantity, once and if this quantity is exhausted, high priority demand competes with low priority demand for the remaining inventory. Under TN the sequence of allocation is reversed: both demand classes first compete for the unreserved inventory. Once this portion of inventory is exhausted, high priority demand is fulfilled from the reserved inventory and low priority demand is rejected. We develop service level (probability of fulfilling the entire demand) and fill rate (fraction of demand fulfilled) expressions for all three allocation mechanisms. Based on these expressions, numerical analyses are conducted to illustrate which allocation mechanism a health planner should choose depending on the availability of vaccines, and how the health planner should set the reserved quantity for the high priority class. We observe that (1) there exist certain conditions under which one of the allocation mechanisms outperforms the others and (2) this effect is determined by the decision maker’s choice of the performance measure.