Recent Submissions

  • New new, new old: Understanding individual and contextual influences on graduates' career choices

    Buyens, Dirk; Mayrhofer, Wolfgang; Andresen, Maike; Arnulf Ketil, Jan; Homberg, Fabian; Kalvina, Agita; Kieran, Sarah; Ludviga, Iveta; Vandenbroucke, Astrid (2020)
    Young graduates are the talent of the future and they will become an important group in organizations in the next decennial. Individuals’ career preferences and work values have shifted over time and, as a result, claims in literature posit that the traditional career will slowly fade away in order to make way for the modern career. In addition, strong contextual forces such as globalization, technology, organizational restructuring, and the growth of services have altered the way we look at careers and challenge what older generations have hitherto taken for granted. Research presented at this symposium will add substantially to the existing literature on what new cohorts of graduates expect from their future career and employer. Authored by scholars from eleven European countries, the papers included in this symposium integrate individual and contextual factors influencing graduates' career intentions across contexts.
  • Distressed portfolio company exit and cross-border venture capital investors

    Devigne, David; Manigart, Sophie; Wright, Mike (2013)
    Drawing upon an escalation of commitment framework, this study investigates how differences between cross-border and domestic venture capital investors in access to information, social and structural factors affect their decision to terminate an unsuccessful investment. We track the exit outcome of 1060 venture capital investments in 684 European technology companies. Results show that domestic investors have a high tendency to escalate their commitment to a failing course of action. In contrast, cross-border investors terminate their investments efficiently, even when investing through a local branch. This is explained by cross-border investors having more limited access to soft information, a lower social involvement with the project and a lower embeddedness in the local economic and social environment, which are all factors that contribute to lower escalation of commitment. Local branches of cross-border investors are further shielded from escalation of commitment through structural safeguards. Domestic investors may hence benefit from mimicking the behavior of cross-border investors.
  • Eighteen shades of grey? A literature review into the theoretical flavours of change research

    Wetzel, Ralf; Van Gorp, Lore (2013)
    Organizational change appears as an intriguing stimulus for business success as much as change protagonists appear as eroticizing manipulators. The ’sexiness’ of concepts for organizational change is that its stimulus is not driven by variation in terms of manipulating contexts, of tools, partners, or of overall preferences. It obviously fascinates by pure simplicity and repetition. Organizational change management concepts seems to thrill by boredom and by permanently postponing the climax of ‘really being better’. This is not only the case regarding the well-known plethora of similarly trivial change concepts. Boredom is also the case in, and probably caused by, organizational change research (OCR), since an increasingly loud voice of criticism diagnoses general partiality and apathy in the field. For us, this diagnosis conflicts dramatically with an existing tremendous variety and richness in the indispensable background of organizational change research - organization theory (OT). Particularly since organization theory has developed radically new perspectives on organizations over the last decades, an up-to-date theoretical foundation of OCR is key for the future impact of change management efforts. The purpose of this paper is to explore, how organization theoretically diverse research on OCR is actually grounded, since insights into the organization theoretical foundations of OCR are completely lacking. For this reason, a selection of 85 articles on organizational change was made, published in top tier journals in 2010. We conducted a reference analysis based on 18 prominent organization theories and their main contributing authors. The findings show firstly a very strong theoretical selectivity in OCR, focussing on cognitive, learning, discursive and neo-institutional theories. Other theories are almost fully neglected. Secondly, our analysis indicate this practice as being a sign that current OCR struggles hard with transforming the cognitive frames of topical OT into own fruitful accesses to its object. The resulting ‘vanilla practice’ of theory application appears as a dissatisfying escape strategy performed to cover theoretical antagonisms and to avoid a deeper confrontation with the underlying assumptions of the identity and conditions of OCR.
  • Job insecurity, knowledge hiding, and team outcomes

    Huang, Guohua; Lee, Cynthia; De Stobbeleir, Katleen; Wang, Li (2019)
    Job insecurity – the threat to the continuity and stability of one’s employment – is an increasingly pervasive issue facing the vast majority of employees. There has been much knowledge accumulated about antecedent and outcomes of job insecurity. However, further advancements in our theoretical and empirical approaches can help us to better understand the consequences, processes, and boundary conditions of job insecurity itself, job insecurity change, and job insecurity climate. With four papers using a moderated mediation model and one paper using a dynamic, mediated model, the current symposium contributes to our understanding of job insecurity by: (1) exploring why and when job insecurity is associated with employee health outcomes and proactive behaviors, (2) examining sources and consequences of job insecurity change when significant organizational changes were taking place, and (3) identifying mechanisms and boundary conditions in the relationship between job insecurity climate at the team level and team outcomes. By showcasing five empirical papers, this symposium focuses on identifying and exploring novel moderators and mediators in the job insecurity process to enrich our understanding of job insecurity, job insecurity change, and job insecurity climate. Together, the combined contributions of these papers add to our understanding of job insecurity as a between-person, within-person and/or multilevel process and illuminate future avenues for research within the field.
  • When your supervisor underperforms: the role of process feedback and the formality of feedback

    Stouthuysen, Kristof; Slabbinck, Hendrik; Distelmans, Tineke (2021)
    This study investigates the role of process feedback as a mechanism to motivate employees after a period of underperformance. We examine whether process feedback, following negative outcome feedback has a positive influence on employees’ willingness to improve performance, and whether this effect differs across organizational roles and the nature of the feedback provided. Based on an experiment and field survey, we find evidence that process feedback encourages employees to improve future performance and this effect becomes further pronounced for employees in a non-supervisory role. For supervisors, though, we find that the relationship between process feedback and future performance improvements is crucially dependent on the formality of feedback. Specifically, underperforming supervisors are more likely to positively react to process feedback when the feedback is generated in a formal way (e.g., by a formalized information system) while the opposite holds for underperforming non-supervisory employees. We also provide evidence that this interaction effect is mediated by feedback acceptance.
  • Digital public service avoidance by people with disabilities

    Pethig, Florian; Jaeger, Lennert; Kroenung, Julia; Buchwald, Arne (2020)
    An increasing number of public services is delivered primarily via digital channels, however, a pressing problem is that they are frequently avoided or even rejected by marginalized citizens, such as people with disabilities. In this paper, we develop a contextualized framework of digital public service avoidance by people with disabilities that builds on and extends prior information systems research by incorporating complexity as the main antecedent of avoidance but it also leverages findings from social psychology and sociology by incorporating the need for human interaction and stigma consciousness as unique sociocultural barriers. We apply the framework to the context of a digital public service specifically developed for people with disabilities and assess its utility in a quantitative study of 145 severely disabled citizens. Our results uncover the need for interaction as a novel and underexplored driver of avoidance, illustrating that the missing “human touch” may be a hidden barrier to bringing more marginalized citizens online.
  • Risk as threat and opportunity: The institutional logics of board risk management

    Ashby, Simon; Bryce, Cormac; Ring, Patrick (2020)
    Organisations make strategic decisions in a world of uncertainty, and their success or failure depends on their ability to organize this uncertainty and exploit or mitigate the associated risks. At the apex of this risk-strategy nexus is the board of directors. We use the institutional logics perspective to investigate how board directors make sense of and act on their authority and accountability for risk management in an environment of conflicting social identities and goals that are bounded by limited resources and cognition. Through the analysis of 30 semi-structured interviews with executive and non-executive directors we find that boards are struggling to reconcile competing supra-organisational logics of ´risk as opportunity´ and ´risk as threat´. Many boards adopt a ‘governance and compliance’ logic for risk management, emphasizing threat reduction/value protection over the exploitation of opportunities/value creation. A very few opt for a ‘strategic-swashbuckling’ logic that gives primacy to value creation via opportunity exploitation. We also find evidence of a nascent ‘appetite aware’ logic, rooted in the object of the risk appetite statement and spread by directors acting as cultural entrepreneurs. Discovery of the appetite aware logic adds to the evidence on logic modularisation and the ability of cultural entrepreneurs to act as change agents by transferring elements of institutional orders from one situation to another. We find that the introduction of a risk appetite statement can influence board risk narratives and management practices."
  • Leaders developing themselves to help others grow. The role of leader identity and learning behavior

    Desmet, Lien; De Stobbeleir, Katleen (2020)
    Rather than focusing on titles and hierarchies, some recent work in the leadership literature has begun to explore how leaders view themselves, both within and outside of their formal roles. This symposium seeks to advance the field’s understanding of the effects of leader self-perceptions on leadership outcomes and invites the audience into an inquiry of the role of leader self-awareness and leader identity in the leadership process. The research presented seeks to better understand (1) how leaders view themselves, (2) how leaders may increase identification with the leader role, and (3) the benefits of this identity for leadership behaviors, including leader effectiveness as well as outcomes for followers.
  • Fighting scaling challenges with internal means: A paradox

    Van Lancker, Evy; Collewaert, Veroniek; Anseel, Frederik (2020)
    While high-growth firms are important providers of innovation, employment, and wealth, it is not clear how a young firm’s top management team navigates the process of scaling their business into such a firm. One particular challenge young firms must learn to overcome if they want to grow is the ‘people’ challenge. This paper studies the boundary conditions of the adoption of high-performance work practices as a means to help overcome the growing pains of these firms. Building on the attention-based view, we show that the adoption of these practices uncovers a paradox which is subject to the influence of financial performance and the team’s previous entrepreneurial experience."
  • Explaining the craze for crowdfunding research as an academic research topic

    Le Pendeven, Benjamin; Bardon, Thibaut; Manigart, Sophie (2020)
    Crowdfunding research has grown exponentially since the first academic papers on the topic in 2013 and received relatively more attention by academics than its importance in the economy would warrant. As no research exists that may guide our research question on how academics chose their research topic, this paper qualitatively explores through thirty interviews with crowdfunding scholars how the craze for crowdfunding research can be explained. Three categories of reasons emerged: scientific reasons, career reasons and socio-psychological reasons. Within each overarching category, we identify two or three second order themes, which are further split up in first order concepts. We hereby contribute not only to increase our understanding of how academics chose their research topics, but also to the adjacent theories of management fashions and schooling."
  • Who is in charge of digital transformation? The birth and rise of the chief digital officer

    Buchwald, Arne; Lorenz, Felix (2020)
    With the increasing pressure for organizations to digitalize, many companies are complementing their top management teams (TMT) with new members, chief informational and digital officers (CIOs and CDOs). As members of top management teams, CIOs and CDOs are expected to fulfill essential roles in the digital transformation strategy and its implementation. By making decisions on digitalization, they also influence business model development, innovation, and business strategy. While research on digital transformation is growing steadily, we lack a coherent understanding of the extent and nature of these top management roles and their relationships and the specific tasks involved. Based on the literature on management, information systems, and related fields, this paper discusses the evolving CIO and CDO roles and their interrelationships. Our key contribution is to conceptualize the role split, the emergence of the CDO, the nature of organizational roles and relationships by drawing on concepts of organizational ambidexterity, transactive memory systems (TMS), and shared understanding. We find that despite the separation of roles and potentially overlapping responsibilities, a collaborative relationship can be beneficial due to the complementary nature of the roles particularly to drive the digital transformation. We conclude with a future research agenda."
  • The effect of justice expectations on OCBs and its regulation by professional identification

    Sguera, Francesco; Patient, David (2020)
    In highly uncertain contexts, such as organizations undergoing major change initiatives, employees become especially attentive to procedural fairness. Although research has focused mainly on perceptions of experienced procedural justice, employees also generate expectations about the procedural fairness they will receive in the future, termed anticipatory procedural justice. In this paper, we posit that these expectations can affect employee positive behaviors that are not specifically related to the change itself, namely organizational citizenship behaviors. Further, we hypothesize that employees highly identified with their profession will be less affected by justice expectations, while employees who are less identified will rely on these expectations when deciding to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors. We test our hypotheses using a multi-method approach entailing one experiment with a heterogeneous sample of US workers (n=183), one three-wave panel survey with a sample of US workers from different organizations undergoing wage cuts and layoffs (N=101), and one field survey in a public health government agency facing a large scale organizational change (n=315). In all three studies, anticipatory procedural justice fully mediated the relationship between experienced procedural justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. In Study 3, where the majority of respondents worked in vocational roles (e.g., healthcare specialists and psychology counsellors), professional identification moderated this mediated relationship. Specifically, the organizational citizenship behaviors of employees highly identified with their profession were not affected by anticipatory procedural justice. We conclude by discussing theoretical and practical implications of our findings."
  • How online platforms transform the experience of work within organizations

    Rogiers, Philip; Viaene, Stijn; Leysen, Jan (2020)
    Drawing from an in-depth case study of an online labor platform within the U.S. federal government, this article introduces and defines a technology affordance model for a new work experience in organizations. Through employees’ interaction with distinct platform features, four mechanisms arise that support employees in their quest for self-actualization. Opportunity and autonomy affordances, bundled as growth affordance, allow employees to craft and seek out internal tasks or projects through which they could grow and utilize their skills and abilities in generic, multi-core areas. Reinvention and feedback affordances, bundled together as impression affordance, then allow employees to experiment with different work identities, and construct an aspirational online image of their selves at work. Besides exposing the action potential arising from human-platform interactions, this article also describes how employees become aware of and interpret this potential, as well as how organizational forces promote or constrain its enactment. It emphasizes the applicability of the model to knowledge-intensive work, wherein workers are increasingly under pressure to engage in life-long learning and upskilling, and to continuously shift and reinvent their work identities. This article suggests the framework’s wider implications and relevance for research into the future of work and organizations."
  • The future of internal staffing: A vision for transformational e-HRM

    Rogiers, Philip; Viaene, Stijn; Leysen, Jan (2020)
    Through an international Delphi study, this article explores the new dynamics that are starting to characterize internal staffing, by means of transformational electronic human resource management. Our focus is on three types of information systems that are expected to evolve and be used in function of transformative change in internal staffing systems: human resource management systems, job portals, and talent marketplaces. Together, these systems challenge current knowledge on internal labor market organization, by affording market-like staffing systems that enable employees to construct personalized and self-directed pathways for growth. Further, this article identifies the key challenges for realizing this vision in governments, such as inadequate regulations and funding priorities, a lack of leadership and strategic vision, together with rigid work policies and practices and a change-resistant culture. Tied to the vision in this article, we identify several areas of future inquiry that bridge the divide between theory and practice."
  • Thinking of a position outside the US? Dos and Don'ts of international business schools

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Richter, A.; Shenoy, P.; Patient, David; Cojuharenco, I.; El Nayal, O.; Hartman, S.; Caprar, D.; Rerup, C.; Grohsjean, T.; Lowe, K. (2020)
    Many management scholars are interested in taking their career to a new culture and context. Although the opportunities around the globe to teach and conduct organizational research have significantly increased, first-hand information on non-US business schools can be hard to come by. This PDW is designed for both junior and senior OB scholars who would like more information regarding academic careers at reputable non-US business schools. It will bring together panelists currently working at schools in Australia, New Zealand, and Europe, who are not originally from there or trained there. The panel will provide information, highlight challenges, and share distinctive features for academic careers in each country, including tacit knowledge and unspoken rules that the panelists have learned during their own adaptation process. Topics for discussion include: What does the job application process look like? How are job candidates and faculty evaluated? What are key challenges in adapting to the national culture and university system? What are norms of professional conduct (i.e., dos and don’ts in presenting oneself and one’s work)? The PDW includes individual presentations by panelists, country-specific roundtable discussions, and a closing Q&A.
  • An integrative view on refugee research: New research insights and lessons learned for academics

    Quataert, Sarah; Buyens, Dirk; Zellhofer, D.; Gallagher, V.; Roy, P.; Hong, H.-J.; Buchelt, B.; Nair, S. (2020)
    Refugees face numerous challenges trying to find their way in the labor markets of receiving countries. They are confronted with legal and administrative hurdles, language barriers, a lack of recognition for degrees or work experience obtained abroad, cultural misunderstanding, or even outright discrimination (EEPO, 2016). These obstacles systematically put refugees in inferior positions resulting in persistent employment gaps and a high risk of being overqualified in case of employment (European Union, 2016). In the light of increasing refugee flows worldwide (UNHCR, 2019), improving the status of refugees on local labor markets is high on the agenda of national governments and international institutions. Also, organizations, challenged by the scarcity of talent on the labor market or the need to include corporate social responsibility, are starting to become more aware of the necessity and potential benefits of including this new available talent pool in their workforce. This evolution challenges existing teams, line management, and HR practitioners to flexibly adapt to a diversifying internal workforce. In order to ameliorate refugees’ status on the labor market and within organizations, effective collaboration between stakeholders is key. Broadening our sight, this PDW takes a holistic perspective highlighting the needs, challenges and untouched potential at all interacting levels of the ecosystem. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the learnings for researchers and academics working with this research population.
  • Towards degrowth-conform organizational models: Framework development and application

    Hankammer, Stephan; Kleer, Robin; Mühl, Lena; Euler, Johannes
    Economic growth is predominantly seen as a central economic and political goal. Recently, this view has been increasingly criticized and the idea of sustainable degrowth emerged as an alternative paradigm in order to ensure human wellbeing within planetary boundaries. As business activity is a key driving force behind economic growth, the role of corporate organizations in a transition towards a post-growth society is a particularly challenging question. It is for instance still unclear how business models for degrowth- conform organizations could look like. In order to address this research gap, our study aims to elaborate the role and design of organizations and their respective business models within the degrowth context. In this exploratory work, we use a two-step approach: Firstly, based on a systematic literature review we provide an overview on business-oriented findings in the degrowth literature. Based on this, we derive elements for a conceptual framework development to consolidate fragmented findings within the degrowth discourse. The resulting framework serves to describe principles for the design of degrowth-conform organizations. Subsequently, we conduct interviews with three CEOs of certified Benefit Corporations (B Corps) and an in-depth case study with four interviewees with a prime example of a B Corp: Dr. Bronner’s. Overall, our findings show that B Corps to some extent successfully implement numerous degrowth- conform elements within our current economic system. However, tensions regarding growth-orientation remain, and further need for research regarding the role and design of organizations for degrowth is identified."
  • The next talent wave: Career-related antecedents and the anticipatory psychological contract

    Vandenbroucke, Astrid; Buyens, Dirk; Buchelt, Beata (2020)
    Young graduates are the talent of the future and they will become an important group in organizations in the next decennial. Individuals’ career preferences and work values have shifted over time and, as a result, claims in literature posit that the traditional career will slowly fade away in order to make way for the modern career. In addition, strong contextual forces such as globalization, technology, organizational restructuring, and the growth of services have altered the way we look at careers and challenge what older generations have hitherto taken for granted. Research presented at this symposium will add substantially to the existing literature on what new cohorts of graduates expect from their future career and employer. Authored by scholars from eleven European countries, the papers included in this symposium integrate individual and contextual factors influencing graduates' career intentions across contexts.
  • 3rd Key - Education: Teach mediation as a core subject aligned to real world needs

    Jordaan, Barney; Masucci, Deborah (2020)
    Mediation is rarely taught as a core subject in business schools, law schools and other professional curricula, despite the fact that an increasing number of jurisdictions now provide for some form of court sponsored mediation. A number of global companies include courses in negotiation and mediation in their professional development offering, but the courses are not always effective in addressing real life situations. The case for, and benefits of, including negotiation and mediation as core modules in law courses rather than a mere elective has already been made elsewhere (e.g., Riskin 1984; Lewis 2016). Results from the GPC Series 2016-17 for North America published on the International Mediation Institute’s website[3] further confirm that education in law and business schools in these disciplines has become a major demand for users of dispute resolution services throughout North America.
  • Encouraging customer citizenship behaviours: The unexplored potential of employee gratitude

    Katsaridou, I.; Lemke, Fred (2020)
    Introduction to the research problem Customers may engage in citizenship behaviours (CCBs) with the aims of benefiting service employees (SEs) (c.f., Garma and Bove, 2011). Despite the veracity of this phenomenon and its positive impact on SE well-being, little is yet known on customer motivations for engaging in these supportive actions (Oyedele and Simpson, 2011). Furthermore, it is argued that gratitude expressions following CCBs towards SEs can serve as the basis of a relationship between the interacting parties. Yet, existing literature remains relatively silent on the role of SE gratitude in customer-SE dyads (Mangus et al., 2017). As such, the current study explores customer motivations and expectations for performing CCBs towards SEs. It also captures the effects of SE gratitude, or lack thereof, for the outcome of the service interaction. Literature review Existing research suggests that customers may voluntarily engage in citizenship behaviours (CCBs) that go above and beyond their normative role. Overall, even though CCBs have been found to be associated with favorable organizational outcomes in prior studies (e.g., Groth , 2005; Yi et al., 2011), limited attention has been paid to CCBs that are separated on the basis of specific beneficiaries, such as SEs. More so, although the outcomes of such customer discretionary behaviours have been previously associated with positive indicators of service employee wellbeing (e.g., Verleye et al., 2016; Zimmermann et al., 2011), it is still speculative why customers may be willing to engage in helpful actions that benefit SEs. In addition, it is argued that a lack of a reciprocal response from SEs runs the risk of being associated with customer perceptions of SE ingratitude, which can lead to customer dissatisfaction (Payne et al., 2002). Conversely, SE expressions of gratitude can lead to the development of a relationship between the interacting parties through its function as a moral motivator (e.g., Bock et al., 2016; Greenbaum et al., 2019; Mangus et al., 2017; Palmatier et al., 2009; Raggio et al., 2014). Through the theoretical angle of role theory, equity theory, and social exchange theory, this research aims at fulfilling the so far lacking investigation of customer discretionary behaviours towards SEs. Understanding this complexity is vital for shedding light onto the function of gratitude during the service encounter, as well as on the effects of SE gratitude/ingratitude on relational outcomes. Method/Approach A qualitative interview procedure is undertaken and face-to-face interviews are conducted with customers of full-service restaurants. Restaurants lay fertile ground for fairly routine encounters, as customers have extensive experience with this context. Thus, they are more inclined to have well-developed scripts that guide their behaviour rather automatically. As a result, customer deviations from the script are likely to be more consciously performed in this setting. The aim of this study is fourfold: 1) to detect customer perceptions of behaviours that are performed by them with the aim of benefiting employees while executing their role of delivering the service; 2) to capture customers’ motivations for engaging in such beneficial behaviours; 3) to determine the expected outcome of these behaviours in terms of the service employee’s response; and 4) to investigate customer perceptions and reactions following the actual outcome response received from SEs. Results/Findings The results of the study indicate that there are diverse motivations that underlie customers’ willingness to perform CCBs towards SEs, which are directly and distinctly linked to their expectations for SE responses. In this vein, the research illustrates how customer emotionally supportive behaviour is associated with different motivations and expectations compared to instrumentally supportive behaviour. Furthermore, the exploratory study suggests that SE responses to CCBs can determine whether a simple transaction has the potential to develop into a mutually beneficial exchange between the two parties or not. Moreover, the study findings offer deeper insights into the antecedents, the outcomes, and the contextual factors that frame the occurrence of each type of customer beneficial behaviour. Overall, the findings represent a comprehensive illustration of the CCB phenomenon, leading to robust advice for theory builders and practitioners, specialized in services marketing. Discussion and implications The lack of research examining the motivations and expectations of customers for engaging in supportive actions towards service personnel is surprising, given that a) helpful customers reflect a potential resource for service employees, and b) gratitude expressions constitute a critical component for the formation of relationships between the exchange parties. Therefore, gaining an understanding of how to identify, approach, and respond to helpful customers can equip service managers with the necessary knowledge to promote the occurrence of such behaviours through appropriate SE training and service design. More importantly, however, establishing and maintaining a relationship with these beneficial customers becomes a real opportunity for building customer loyalty in a co-creating fashion. Overall, this paper integrates insights from CCB and social exchange theory to explain customers’ decisions to perform helpful actions that are intended to benefit SEs (and service companies, by extension). Additionally, the study investigates customer perceptions and reactions in the scenario of grateful and ungrateful employee responses along with the associated outcomes for the service encounter. As such, this paper illustrates that the exchanges between service employees and customers are interdependent and draws caution to the fact that for a service encounter to be symmetrical, balanced and thus jointly rewarding, expressions of appreciation and gratitude from the service firm are warranted. Such an approach is conducive to avoiding the potentially irreversibly harmful effects of customer perceptions of ingratitude. When motivations and expectations of helpful customers are not fully understood, disloyalty is a typical consequence in the service environment.

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