Religious organisations are major investors with sometimes substantial investment volumes. An important question for them is how to make investments in, and to earn returns from, companies and activities that are consistent with their religious beliefs or that even support these beliefs. Religious organisations have pioneered responsible investment. Yet little is known about their investment attitudes. This article addresses this gap by studying faith consistent investing. Based on a survey complemented by interviews, we investigate religious organisations’ attitudes towards responsible investment including opinions, practices and the impediments for implementing faith consistent investing. Although our results cannot be generalised because of the non-random character of our sample, six main characteristics of faith consistent investing are drawn: investing is not perceived as being in contradiction with religious values, religious values are important drivers, there is a strong community around faith consistent investing, religious investors are pioneering impact investing, implementing faith consistent investing is not without difficulties, and practices vary across regions. The survey also reveals that faith consistent investing has many commonalities with secular responsible investors.
von Krogh, Georg; Seonwoo, Kim; Erden, Zeynep(2008)
Knowledge is one of the most important sources of competitive advantage for companies. Recently nonprofit organizations and governments as well as companies have been trying to maximize knowledge sharing and creation. Despite its importance, sharing knowledge is not an easy task to implement. Therefore, a company has to provide a knowledge-enabling context to facilitate its customers' knowledge activities. The objective of this research is to understand knowledge sharing in interorganizational customer communities and to figure out how a company fosters its customers' knowledge sharing. For this, a model composed of behavioral intention, community features, empowered leadership, and a company as a knowledge activist was developed
Weiss, Martin; Klein, Florian; Puck, Jonas F.(2016)
The macroenvironment constitutes a widely acknowledged source of firms’ risk in international business. A substantial body of research on macroenvironmental risks encapsulates a variety of measurement approaches, antecedents, and managerial consequences. However, a review of established macroenvironmental risk measures reveals that these measures strongly focus on the quality of the macroenvironment, assuming a rather static perspective and mainly excluding other dimensions. Building on prior research on macroenvironmental risk as well as on environmental dynamism, we argue that macroenvironmental dynamism - i.e. the frequency, intensity, and predictability of macroenvironmental variation - is a pivotal source of risk in international business, which so far only received limited attention. Moreover, we suggest that macroenvironmental dynamism influences firms’ risk management activities. We test our hypotheses using primary survey data on risk management activities from 161 foreign subsidiaries in six emerging countries and secondary data on the macroeconomic context in these countries. We find support for our hypotheses that macroenvironmental dynamism, if compared to macroenvironmental quality, exerts a strong influence on firms’ risk management activities. Our findings enhance the understanding of the dynamic nature of macroenvironmental risk in international business as well as provide a concept to comprehensively measure macroenvironmental dynamism that future research can build upon.
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