Recent Submissions

  • Advanced analytics in pharmaceutical innovation: The use of real-world evidence in oncology

    Geldof, Tine (2019)
    The smart use of real-world evidence (RWE) is known to enable more flexible forms of access to novel medicines. This flexibility may be especially promising for targeted cancer medicines, which often do not align with the traditional approach to medicinal development, and for which therapeutic innovation (i.e. favourable and clinically significant benefits at an affordable price) in routine clinical practice is becoming ever more difficult to achieve due to its highly complex nature. Amongst others, RWE should include information on the performance of those medicines for every individual patient. However, the current estimation of this patientlevel performance using conventional methods from pharmaceutical and medical sciences is challenging. This is because these methods are unable to derive causal conclusions on medicinal performance from the complex real-world environment, as opposed to controlled and randomised clinical trial settings. Simultaneously, the increasing emergence of novel medicines, and their promising combined effects are now creating a new combinatorial complexity level on the captured data. At the same time, new and advanced analytical methods within the field of data science are continuously being developed and have recently been applied to pharmaceutical and medical research, including the domain of pharmacoepidemiology. These powerful methods include techniques such as machine learning and Bayesian approaches, both being recognised as having a transformative potential in clinical research and practice. Specifically, they may be used to gain new insights into the patient-level performance of novel medicines in the messy real world, thereby providing a better understanding of RWE. In doing so, studies may generate new hypotheses through the exploration of data sets, or test existing hypotheses prespecified during prior clinical research. In this dissertation, I present the specific methods of advanced analytics to unravel the complexity of RWE , therefore, increasing our understanding of the individual performance of cancer treatments. These methods are investigated for their use in both hypothesis generation (part 1) and hypothesis testing (part 2) studies. A general ntroduction into the field is provided in Chapter 1, followed by the research objectives. In Chapter 2, I validate the use of an advanced modelling technique, i.e. machine learning, as a personal performance prediction model for glioblastoma. Optimisations of this model to be used on novel medicines in more complex situations are proposed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the importance of multi-product RWE assessments is explored, for which hypotheses. Lastly, for these investigated analytics to become useful in healthcare, the need for an insight-providing federated network is introduced in Chapter 6. Chapter 7, the last chapter of this dissertation, presents a general conclusion with discussion of the research contributions.
  • Topics in financial economics

    Matthys, Thomas (2018)
  • Aufbau eines ressourcenorientierten Konzeptes zur Messung des Diversifikationsgrades

    Weiss, Martin (2009)
    naugural Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften „Doctor rerum politicarum“ an der Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. Die Auswahl der Geschäftsfelder, in denen ein Unternehmen tätig sein soll, ist eine der bedeutendsten Entscheidungen im Rahmen des strategischen Managements und eines der zentralen sowie am meisten bearbeiteten Forschungsfelder. Im Fokus steht dabei die Frage nach dem Zusammenhang zwischen der Diversifikationsstrategie und dem Unternehmenserfolg, die bis heute nicht abschließend beantwortet ist. Martin Weiss befasst sich in dieser Arbeit mit der Messung des Diversifikationsgrades, da die damit einhergehenden Probleme in der Literatur häufig als eine zentrale Ursache für die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse der Diversifikationserfolgsforschung genannt werden. Dazu analysiert er die bisherigen Ansätze und entwickelt auf dieser Basis ein neues ressourcenorientiertes Messkonzept, das die gesamte Ressourcenbasis eines Unternehmens sowie unterschiedliche Synergieeffekte umfasst. Die Arbeit richtet sich primär an zwei Zielgruppen. Zum einen sind dies Wissenschaftler, die sich mit Diversifikation auseinandersetzen – besonders an solche, die sich mit der Messung des Diversifikationsgrades beschäftigen bzw. darauf in ihren Untersuchungen zurückgreifen. Zum anderen sind dies strategische Entscheider der Unternehmenspraxis, für deren Fragen rund um die Diversifikationsstrategie die Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchung wertvolle Impulse liefern können.
  • Der Realoptionsansatz als Controllinginstrument in jungen Wachstumsunternehmen

    Fehre, Kerstin (2007)
    Auf der Basis des Rationalitätssicherungsansatzes untersucht Kerstin H. Faaß die controllingrelevanten Merkmale von JWU sowie die Anforderungen an ein Controllinginstrument in JWU und nimmt anschließend eine umfassende Kosten- und Nutzenanalyse des Realoptionsansatzes vor. Sie leitet einen Handlungsleitfaden für die stufenweise Anwendung des Ansatzes ab und zeigt Möglichkeiten zur Nutzung des Wertbeitrages des Realoptionsansatzes als Controllinginstrument in JWU auf.
  • Three essays on competition policy and innovation incentives

    Kleer, Robin (2009)
    This thesis deals with the economics of innovation. In a general introduction we illustrate how several aspects of competition policy are linked to firms’ innovation incentives. In three individual essays we analyze more specific issues. The first essay deals with interdependencies of mergers and innovation incentives. This is particularly relevant as both topics are central elements of a firm’s competitive strategy. The essay focuses on the impact of mergers on innovative activity and competition in the product market. Possible inefficiencies due to organizational problems of mergers are accounted for. We show that optimal investment strategies depend on the resulting market structure and differ significantly from insider to outsider. In our linear model mergers turn out to increase social surplus. The second essay analyzes the different competitive advantages of large and small firms in innovation competition. While large firms typically have a better access to product markets, small firms often have a superior R&D efficiency. These distinct advantages immediately lead to the question of cooperations between firms. In our model we allow large firms to acquire small firms. In a pre-contest acquisition game large firms bid sequentially for small firms in order to combine respective advantages. Innovation competition is modeled as a patent contest. Sequential bidding allows the first large firms to bid strategically to induce a reaction of its competitor. For high efficiencies large firms prefer to acquire immediately, leading to a symmetric market structure. For low efficiencies strategic waiting of the first large firm leads to an asymmetric market structure even though the initial situation is symmetric. Furthermore, acquisitions increase the chances for successful innovation. The third essay deals with government subsidies to innovation. Government subsidies for R&D are intended to promote projects with high returns to society but too little private returns to be beneficial for private investors. Apart from the direct funding of these projects, government grants may serve as a signal of good investments for private investors. We use a simple signaling model to capture this phenomenon and allow for two types of risk classes. The agency has a preference for high risk projects as they promise high expected social returns, whereas banks prefer low risk projects with high private returns. In a setup where the subsidy can only be used to distinguish between high and low risk projects, government agency’s signal is not very helpful for banks’ investment decision. However, if the subsidy is accompanied by a quality signal, it may lead to increased or better selected private investments. The last chapter summarizes the main findings and presents some concluding remarks on the results of the essays
  • Transforming government: The way towards digital era governance

    Danneels, Lieselot (2017)
    The aim of this research chair is to conduct scientific research on the possibilities for the digitization of public services. This includes research into innovation of business processes, services and service models within digital ecosystems for public services.

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