• An Assessment of Validity in Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research

      Buelens, Marc; Bouckenooghe, Dave; De Clercq, Dirk; Willem, Annick (2005)
    • An exploration of the cognitive style profiles among entrepreneurs

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Van den Broeck, Herman; Cools, Eva; Vanderheyden, Karlien (2005)
      In this article we reopen the search for those features that distinguish entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs. Because the trait psychology approach failed to fulfill this promise the cognitive psychology approach was adopted. The exploration of cognitive styles among 497 entrepreneurs and 521 non-entrepreneurs in Flanders distinguishes six profiles: omnipotent thinkers, lazy thinkers, pacesetters, experts, inventors, and implementors. A comparison of both groups yields differences in the prevalence of inventors and implementors. We find significantly more inventors in the group of entrepreneurs and significantly more implementors in the group of non-entrepreneurs. Finally, the results of this study also indicate that entrepreneurs may differ in the cognitive style profiles they hold. Keywords: cognitive styles, entrepreneurs, non-entrepreneurs, cluster analysis
    • An exploratory study on principals' conceptions about their role as school leaders

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Devos, Geert (2007)
      This inquiry, by means of the case study method, explored how the conceptions of principals about their role of school leader contribute to a better understanding of their behavior and the impact on school climate. The results showed that differences of how principals conceive their role as a leader affect indirectly through their leadership practices (i.e. initiating structure and supportive leadership), the unity in vision, collegial relations, collaboration, innovativeness and satisfaction of teachers. Based on a content analysis of interviews with 46 Belgian school leaders we distinguished three profiles: (1) the ‘people minded profile' with an emphasis on people, educational matters and thus on creating a professional teaching community, (2) the ‘administrative minded profile' with the focus on paperwork and the implementation of formal procedures and rules, and (3) the ‘moderate minded profile' with no explicit preference for people, educational or administrative matters. Drawing on three prototypical cases we described in depth that these types of principals often work under different school climate conditions. We relied on semi-structured interviews to gather data on principals' thoughts about their role as school leaders. Also, survey questionnaires were administered among 700 teachers in 46 schools to assess several features of school climate (i.e. goal orientedness, participation, formal and informal relationships, innovativeness), satisfaction of teachers, and leadership role behavior (i.e. initiating structure and supportive leadership behavior).
    • Change recipients' attitudes toward change: a review study

      Bouckenooghe, Dave (2009)
      In this paper, we present a meta-heuristic algorithm for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows. We assume fixed payments associated with the execution of project activities and develop a heuristic optimisation procedure to maximise the net present value of a project subject to the precedence and renewable resource constraints. We investigate the use of a bi-directional generation scheme and a recursive forward/backward improvement method from literature and embed them in a meta-heuristic scatter search framework. We generate a large dataset of project instances under a controlled design and report detailed computational results. The solutions and project instances can be downloaded from a website in order to facilitate comparison with future research attempts.
    • Gender differences in Commitment to change: impacted by gender or by being part of a minority group?

      Deprez, Jana; Van den Broeck, Herman; Cools, Eva; Bouckenooghe, Dave (2012)
    • Individual and organizational facets of change in the public and private sector: a comparative study

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Devos, Geert (2006)
      This study compares individual (i.e., readiness to change and locus of control) and organizational aspects of change (i.e., participation in decision making and risk-taking reward orientation) in Belgian public and private sector organizations. This empirical research is based on perceptions of 930 managers and 629 employees collected through a questionnaire survey from a variety of public (n = 35) and private sector organizations (n = 21). In total 1,559 responses were collected from the private (n = 827) and the public sector (n = 732). The hypotheses tested were that, in the public sector people report (a) a lower level of readiness to change (i.e., emotional involvement and commitment to change), (b) a lower level of internal locus of control, (c) a lower risk-taking reward orientation, and (d) a higher level of participation in decision-making in comparison to the private sector. Two-way analyses of variance, private versus public and managerial versus non-managerial position of respondents, were performed. Results yielded significant main effects for sector on locus of control, risk-taking reward orientation and readiness to change, and contribute to the debate on similarities and differences between public and private sector management. Some main effects can not be interpreted in a straightforward manner, since significant interaction effects were observed between sector and hierarchical position for locus of control, risk-taking reward orientation, commitment to change, and emotional involvement. In brief, the hierarchical position of respondents is an important moderator variable that helps to explain differences between both sectors. To conclude, the findings of this inquiry have noteworthy theoretical and managerial implications that are discussed throughout this paper. Key words: readiness to change, locus of control, participation in decision making, risk-taking reward orientation, public and private sector comparison.
    • Individual differences in management education: an international inquiry about their impact on learning outcomes

      Cools, Eva; Deprez, Jana; Vanderheyden, Karlien; Bellens, Kim; Backhaus, Kristin; Bouckenooghe, Dave (2011)
    • Research methods in negotiation: 1965-2004

      Buelens, Marc; Van De Woestyne, Mieke; Mestdagh, Steven; Bouckenooghe, Dave (2007)
      This study provides insight into the dominant methodological practices that have shaped the field of negotiation over the past four decades, and sheds light on possible gaps and trade-offs. We content analyzed 941 peer reviewed negotiation articles (published between 1965-2004) for methodology. We distinguished key issues in negotiation research and identified methodological trends over time (1965-2004). The results reveal significant changes in reliability, validity and triangulation issues. In addition, the rise of multivariate statistics and multiple data-sources displays a positive evolution towards more sophisticated methodologies. However, more attention is needed to address the enduring lack of longitudinal designs and qualitative techniques in negotiation research. Keywords: negotiation, research methodology, review, validity, triangulation
    • The change climate questionnaire: scale development

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Devos, Geert; Van den Broeck, Herman (2008)
    • The Cognitive Style Indicator: Development and validation of a new measurement instrument

      Cools, Eva; Van den Broeck, Herman; Bouckenooghe, Dave (2006)
      This paper describes the development and validation of a cognitive style measure, the Cognitive Style Indicator (CoSI). Three studies were conducted to validate the CoSI. The first study consisted of 5924 employees who took part in a large-scale research with regard to career decisions. In the second study, 1580 people completed the CoSI as part of a ‘Competence Indicator' tool on the Internet. Finally, the third study comprised 635 MBA students who completed the CoSI in the context of a ‘Management and Organization' course. Reliability, item, and factor analyses demonstrated the internal consistency and homogeneity of three cognitive styles (knowing, planning, and creating style). In addition, substantial support was found for the instrument's construct validity by including other cognitive style instruments, and personality and ability measures in the validation process. Criterion-related validity was confirmed by examination of the relationship between these cognitive styles and work-related characteristics. The main contributions of our research lie in (a) the development of a valid and reliable cognitive style instrument for use in organizations, and in (b) the further refinement of the analytic-intuitive cognitive style dimension by splitting the analytic pole in a knowing and a planning style.
    • The role of process, context and individual characteristics in explaining readiness to change: a multilevel analysis

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Devos, Geert (2007)
      Organisational change often yields limited success. Failure in many cases is due to the motivation or readiness to change among employees. This article proposes and tests a multilevel model of readiness to change. Contrary to most works on readiness to change, readiness is conceptualised as a multifaceted construct (i.e. emotional involvement and commitment to change). Relationships of several context, process variables and locus of control with both components of readiness to change were examined. By means of a large scale survey administered in 56 public and private sector organisations, we collected 1,559 responses in total. Multilevel random coefficient modeling showed that a proportion of the total variance in emotional involvement and commitment to change is explained at the organizational level. Furthermore, the results indicated that the organization's change history, the sector (public versus private), participation in the change process and support of top management toward change are important variables in understanding readiness to change. Key words: commitment to change, context factors of change, emotional involvement, locus of control, multilevel analysis and process factors of change
    • The well-being of flemish primary school principals

      Devos, Geert; Bouckenooghe, Dave; Engels, Nadine; Hotton, Gwendoline; Aelterman, Antonia (2006)
      Purpose: The goal of this inquiry is to indicate which individual, organisational and external environment factors contribute to a better understanding of the well-being of Flemish primary school principals. Findings: The quantitative and qualitative outcomes suggest that well-being is a complex psychological phenomenon affected by a myriad of factors. The analyses indicate that general self-efficacy and achievement orientedness are significantly correlated with several aspects of positive (i. e. job satisfaction and job enthusiasm) and negative well-being (i.e. cynicism and personal accomplishment). With respect to school culture and structural characteristics, very weak almost negligible effects are noted. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the significant role school boards fulfill in explaining both positive and negative well-being. Finally, the role of central government in generally is found to affect well-being in a negative way. Methodology: Data from a representative sample of primary schools in Flanders (N=46) were gathered through questionnaires (principals and teachers) and semi-structured interviews (principals). Implications: The findings of this paper provide important information for policy makers concerned with the improvement of the well-being of primary school principals. Originality/value of paper: Although prior research investigated the influence of different antecedents on well-being, several limitations in method and conceptual framework yielded information of which the usefulness must be considered tentative (Ross, 1999). In this inquiry an attempt is made to overcome these limitations and contribute to the literature in a double way: (1) This study adopts a concurrent mixed method approach of data collection, (2) Well-being is examined from a positive psychology (job enthusiasm and job satisfaction) and negative psychology approach (burnout), whereas prior research almost exclusively looked at the negative pole of well-being. Key words: primary school principals, well-being, mixed method approach.
    • Values, value conflict and stress the prediction of stress by values and value conflict

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Buelens, Marc; Fontaine, J.; Vanderheyden, Karlien (2004)
      The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between stress, values, and value conflict. Data collected from 400 people working in a wide variety of companies in Flanders indicated that the values openness to change, conservation, self-transcendence, self-enhancement, and value conflict were important predictors of stress. Participants open to change reported less stress, while respondents scoring high on conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence perceived more stress. People reporting high value conflict also experienced more stress. Separate analyses for the male and female subsamples demonstrated that sex differences regarding the relationship between the four value types and stress cast new light on the findings for the total sample. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and future research directions.