• Pre-acquisition profile of privately held companies involved in takeovers: an empirical study

      Ooghe, Hubert; Camerlynck, Jan (2001)
      This study addresses the pre-acquisition financial characteristics of privately held acquiring and acquired companies involved in 143 Belgian takeovers between 1992 and 1994. Specifically, the research examines the profitability, liquidity, financial structure, added value and failure risk using statistical analysis of industry-adjusted variables. Our findings show that acquisition is not an alternative to bankruptcy since acquired companies do not report high failure risk, but exhibit higher than industry liquidity and solvency. The acquirers achieve a higher growth rate in total assets and sales than the acquired firms but experience a negative industry-adjusted liquidity and are highly levered, suggesting evidence for a growth-resource mismatch or a financial fit between acquirers and their targets.
    • Profile Of Multiple Versus Single Acquirers And Their Targets: A Research Note

      Ooghe, Hubert; De Langhe, Tine; Camerlynck, Jan (2003)
      Few studies have addressed the pre-take-over financial characteristics of multiple versus single acquirers and their targets. Therefore this study investigates whether multiple acquirers, with some experience in acquiring companies, might acquire firms with different (better) financial characteristics than single acquirers. Our results confirm this hypothesis in multiple ways. It seems that multiple acquirers look for complementary firms in terms of sales and growth. Multiple acquirers specifically want to acquire companies with a high sales generating ability in order to improve their own sales generating ability.
    • The Ooghe-Joos-De Vos failure prediction models : a cross-industry validation

      Ooghe, Hubert; Camerlynck, Jan; Balcaen, Sofie (2001)
      This study tests the validity of the Belgian Ooghe-Joos-De Vos (1991) failure prediction models (1 and 3 years prior to failure) across 18 different industries and different size classes. Firstly, the performance results and the trade-off functions reveal a wide range of performances for the different industries. However, we notice that the OJD models perform best for the classical manufacturing industries and financial services, while they show the worst performance results for the service industries and the no-industry category. Furthermore, when using new, industry specific cut-off points, the error rates of the models are significantly reduced. Secondly, the OJD model 1 year prior to failure seems to perform best for large companies and companies with complete form annual accounts. Finally, the performance differences between the various subgroups with respect to industry, size class and form of annual account of the model 3 years prior to failure the are much smaller than those of the model 1 year prior to failure.