• A framework for assessing commitment to change. Process and context variables of organizational change

      Devos, Geert; Van den Broeck, Herman; Vanderheyden, Karlien (2002)
      Major organizational changes yield limited success. Failure of change is frequently due to a lack of commitment and motivation of the employees who have to implement the change. In this paper a framework is developed in which employees' emotional involvement and their commitment to change is explained by change process variables and internal context variables. The process variables refer to the different aspects organizations have to follow in implementing fundamental changes. The internal context variables are located at the organizational, work unit and individual level. We found that emotional involvement is an important mediating variable between change process and context variables and commitment to change. To explore the merits of this framework, we studied the perceptions of employees involved in major changes of different organizations. Results indicated that the organization's change history, jobsatisfaction, participation in the change process, availability of time and emotional involvement are important variables in understanding commitment to change. Study findings are discussed and implications for research and theory-building are suggested. Key words: organizational change, commitment, emotional involvement
    • The batteries of change. Is your organisation energised for change

      De Prins, Peter; Letens, Geert; Verweire, Kurt (2018)
      This white paper by Prof Peter De Prins, Prof Geert Letens and Prof Kurt Verweire sets out a new change model and outlines how you can use it to make lasting, effective change happen in your organisation.
    • Change recipients' attitudes toward change: a review study

      Bouckenooghe, Dave (2009)
      In this paper, we present a meta-heuristic algorithm for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows. We assume fixed payments associated with the execution of project activities and develop a heuristic optimisation procedure to maximise the net present value of a project subject to the precedence and renewable resource constraints. We investigate the use of a bi-directional generation scheme and a recursive forward/backward improvement method from literature and embed them in a meta-heuristic scatter search framework. We generate a large dataset of project instances under a controlled design and report detailed computational results. The solutions and project instances can be downloaded from a website in order to facilitate comparison with future research attempts.
    • Gender differences in Commitment to change: impacted by gender or by being part of a minority group?

      Deprez, Jana; Van den Broeck, Herman; Cools, Eva; Bouckenooghe, Dave (2012)
    • Individual and organizational facets of change in the public and private sector: a comparative study

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Devos, Geert (2006)
      This study compares individual (i.e., readiness to change and locus of control) and organizational aspects of change (i.e., participation in decision making and risk-taking reward orientation) in Belgian public and private sector organizations. This empirical research is based on perceptions of 930 managers and 629 employees collected through a questionnaire survey from a variety of public (n = 35) and private sector organizations (n = 21). In total 1,559 responses were collected from the private (n = 827) and the public sector (n = 732). The hypotheses tested were that, in the public sector people report (a) a lower level of readiness to change (i.e., emotional involvement and commitment to change), (b) a lower level of internal locus of control, (c) a lower risk-taking reward orientation, and (d) a higher level of participation in decision-making in comparison to the private sector. Two-way analyses of variance, private versus public and managerial versus non-managerial position of respondents, were performed. Results yielded significant main effects for sector on locus of control, risk-taking reward orientation and readiness to change, and contribute to the debate on similarities and differences between public and private sector management. Some main effects can not be interpreted in a straightforward manner, since significant interaction effects were observed between sector and hierarchical position for locus of control, risk-taking reward orientation, commitment to change, and emotional involvement. In brief, the hierarchical position of respondents is an important moderator variable that helps to explain differences between both sectors. To conclude, the findings of this inquiry have noteworthy theoretical and managerial implications that are discussed throughout this paper. Key words: readiness to change, locus of control, participation in decision making, risk-taking reward orientation, public and private sector comparison.
    • More management concepts in the academy. Internationalization as an organizational change process

      Kondakci, Yasar; Van den Broeck, Herman; Devos, Geert (2006)
      The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the internationalization process in higher education as an organizational level managerial issue. This approach brings a new perspective to internationalization in higher education. This is believed to be a necessary step toward filling a gap in the internationalization of higher education discussions. Nevertheless, the purpose of the study is not to falsify the dominant discussion in the literature. Rather, adopting the organizational change process conceptualization, this paper aims to fill a gap in the ongoing discussion on internationalization in the literature. To do this, the authors adopted the commonly accepted organizational change model of Burke and Litwin (1992) and made a comprehensive discussion on both transformational (external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, and organizational culture) and transactional (structure, task requirements and individual skills, individual needs and values, motivation, management practices, systems, climate) domains of the model from the perspective of internationalization in higher education. This approach is expected to clarify process, content, and context aspects of internationalization, which is essential for successful internationalization implementation.
    • Openness to organizational change: the contribution of content, context, and process

      Devos, Geert; Buelens, Marc (2003)
      The present study examined the contribution to employees' openness to change of the content, context, and process of organizational transformation. The threatening character of organizational change (content variable), trust in executive management, trust in the supervisor, history of change (context variables), and participation in the change effort (process variable) were predicted to have a positive effect on openness to change. Hypotheses were tested in two separate studies (N = 828 and N = 835) using experimental vignettes. A first study crossed four variables in a fully crossed 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design. Results showed significant main effects and no interaction effects for content, context, and process. A second study, with a fully crossed 2 × 2 design crossed two context variables, history of change and trust in top management. Results showed significant main and significant interaction effects. It was only when history of change and trust in executive management were low that openness to change dramatically decreased.
    • Psychological contract development during organizational socialization: adaptation to reality and the role of reciprocity

      De Vos, Ans; Buyens, Dirk; Schalk, M.J.D. (René) (2003)
      Based on the theoretical framework of newcomer sensemaking this study examines factors associated with changes in newcomers' psychological contract perceptions during the socialization process. More specifically, two mechanisms are addressed that could explain changes in newcomers' perceptions of the promises they have exchanged with their employer: (1) unilateral adaptation of perceived promises to reality and (2) adaptation of perceived promises as a function of the reciprocity norm. To test our hypotheses, a four-wave longitudinal study among 333 new hires has been conducted, covering the first year of their employment relationship. Results show that changes in newcomers' perceptions of the promises they have made to their employer are affected by their perceptions of their own contributions as well as by their perceptions of inducements received from their employer. Changes in newcomers' perceptions of employer promises are affected by their perceptions of employer inducements received, but the impact of perceived employee contributions is less clear. The data provide limited support for the idea that the adaptation of perceived promises to perceived inducements and contributions occurs to a stronger extent during the encounter stage than during the acquisition stage of socialization.
    • Values, value conflict and stress the prediction of stress by values and value conflict

      Bouckenooghe, Dave; Buelens, Marc; Fontaine, J.; Vanderheyden, Karlien (2004)
      The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between stress, values, and value conflict. Data collected from 400 people working in a wide variety of companies in Flanders indicated that the values openness to change, conservation, self-transcendence, self-enhancement, and value conflict were important predictors of stress. Participants open to change reported less stress, while respondents scoring high on conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence perceived more stress. People reporting high value conflict also experienced more stress. Separate analyses for the male and female subsamples demonstrated that sex differences regarding the relationship between the four value types and stress cast new light on the findings for the total sample. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and future research directions.