• Assessing the impact of offline url advertising

      Geuens, Maggie; Vantomme, D.; Weijters, Bert; Goessaert, Geert (Vlerick Business School, 2003)
      To examine the impact of offline URL advertising, a quantitative study among internet users and non-users is carried out. For internet users, the results reveal a significant impact on each level of the hierarchy of effects. Respondents remembering an offline URL ad are more aware and have a higher knowledge of the site, show a more positive attitude towards the site, and indicate a higher intention to visit/revisit the site. Remarkably, offline URL advertising not only is able to attract internet users to the site the first time, but also to generate an impact over and above site experience by increasing the likelihood of revisiting the site. For internet non-users, offline URL advertising is significantly less effective.
    • Co-branding in advertising: the issue of product and brand-fit

      Geuens, Maggie; Pecheux, C. (2006)
      Three studies are conducted to investigate co-branding in advertising by manipulating product and brand fit. Polarity of brand images (positive or neutral) and the type of ad processing (top-down versus bottom up) were also taken into account. The results show that either product or brand fit is sufficient to produce positive attitudes towards the core brand in case of a high image core brand. However, these results do not hold for core brands with a neutral image. In that case, brands better team up with a brand possessing high product fit and/or a positive image instead of a similar image.
    • Consumer innovativeness and GLB: a comparative study

      Vandecasteele, Bert; Geuens, Maggie (2006)
    • Customers' usage of self service technology in a retail setting

      Weijters, Bert; Schillewaert, Niels; Rangarajan, Deva; Falk, Tomas (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      The last decade has seen an increased focus by retailers on using new technologies to deliver their services. The introduction of self-service technologies (SSTs) opens up for retailers the potential of improving productivity and service quality while cutting costs. However previous forays by retailers to get their customers to try these self-service technologies have not been proven to be quite successful. Previous empirical research on the usage of technology based self-services has mainly focused on antecedents of attitude towards and corresponding behavioral intentions to use. However, little empirical research has linked these variables to actual behavior in a real life setting. To address these issues, we collected a combination of survey and observational data using self-scanning lanes as objects of investigation. We identify ease of use, usefulness, fun, and reliability as drivers of attitude towards the SST, which in turn significantly predict actual usage of the SST. We also extend previous research by focusing on the moderating effects of age, education and gender as key demographic variables. Finally, we contribute to the literature by studying the consequences of SST use from the customers' point of view. Keywords: self-service technology, retailing, consumer attitudes and behavior
    • Different positive feelings leading to different ad evaluations: the case of coziness, excitement and romance

      Faseur, Tine; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      This study contributes to the debate about the valence-based versus the multi-dimensional views of feelings. By conducting an experiment using 317 subjects, we compared the differential impact of three different positive feelings on ad effectiveness. Support for the multi-dimensional view of feelings was found in the sense that ad- and context-evoked coziness, excitement and romance had a different impact on attitudes to ads. Moreover, in the area of context effects further support for the multi-dimensional view of feelings was found: the exciting, the romantic and the cozy ads scored best after recounting a feeling-congruent story.
    • Engaging Social Media Services to Enhance Online Business Processes

      Basu, Amit; Muylle, Steve; Standaert, Willem (Cox School of Business, 2015)
    • Evaluation of age-related labels by senior citizens

      Weijters, Bert; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2002)
      The age-related labels ‘50+,' ‘senior'and ‘retired' are evaluated by a 45+ sample. Results show the appreciation of the terms increases upon entering the 50+ / senior / retirement group and keeps on increasing with age once the treshold age is crossed. The findings that label evaluations are generally positive and that 65 years is the mode of indicated treshold age for senior citizenship lead to an alternative interpretation of previous research (Tepper, 1994): people under 65 might consider being labeled ‘senior' undesirable because it is deviant from normality rather than because of the negativity of the label as such. Keywords: senior, 50+, age labels, marketing communications
    • Explicit and implicit determinants of fair-trade buying behavior

      Vantomme, D.; Geuens, Maggie; De Houwer, J.; De Pelsmacker, Patrick (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      We examined the usefulness of an implicit attitude measure (IAT) to explain the weak attitude-behavior relationships often found in research about ethical consumer behavior. The results indicated that the IAT effects for buyers and non-buyers of Fair Trade products were significantly different, showing that the IAT can be used to differentiate between buyers and non-buyers. Further, the authors conclude that the IAT has unique predictive validity and that most importantly implicit attitudes need to be enhanced to raise ethical consumer behavior.
    • Healthy or unhealthy slogans: that's the question...

      Adams, Leen; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      The present study focuses on social self-esteem of youngsters (i.e. esteem derived from approval of others), a widespread, important pursuit of youngsters in modern society. More specifically, we explored the relationship between social self-esteem on the one hand, and an individual difference measure, Need for Closure, and gender on the other hand. Results show that NFCL and gender significantly relate to social self-esteem values like eagerness for approval and tranquility, achievement pressure and competence orientation, individualism, independency and appearance mindedness. NFCL and gender also affect youngster's social esteem related self-images. In addition, interesting interaction effects were identified. Limitations and directions for future research are suggested. Keywords: Need for Closure, Values, Self-Image, Gender, Social Self-Esteem.
    • Implicit attitudes toward green consumer behavior

      Vantomme, D.; Geuens, Maggie; De Houwer, J.; De Pelsmacker, Patrick (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic) attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behavior relationships often found in green consumer behavior research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behavior were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (Experiment1) or no differences in these attitudes (Experiment 2 and follow-up study). When existing products were involved, implicit attitudes related to behavioral intention, even where the explicit attitude measure did not. 2005/30 - Explicit and implicit determinants of fair-trade buying behavior [DOWNLOAD]
    • Is gender stereotyping in advertising more prevalent in masculine countries? A cross-national analysis

      De Wulf, Kristof; Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby; Hofstee, Natascha (Vlerick Business School, 2003)
      The objective of this study is to test whether gender stereotyping in printed advertising is more prevalent in masculine as opposed to feminine countries. We consider this to be important, as advertising is generally more influential than literature in spreading stereotypical ideas given its high accessibility. Moreover, the way in which sexes are portrayed in advertising affects people's perceptions of gender roles in real life. Using content analysis, we collected empirical data on gender stereotyping of women depicted in 946 printed advertisements from two European countries widely differing in their level of masculinity, the UK and the Netherlands. The results indicate that a country's masculinity index is hardly related to the use of gender stereotyping in printed advertising, potentially implying that other factors underlie the use of gender stereotyping. Key words: Gender stereotyping, UK and the Netherlands, advertising, content analysis, masculinity index
    • Measurement bias due to response styles: a structural equation model assessing the effects of modes of data-collection

      Weijters, Bert; Schillewaert, Niels; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2004)
      This paper validates measures of response styles as latent variables using structural equation modeling. Next to measurement validation the main objective is to assess whether different modes of data collection bring along measurement bias due to response styles. Results indicate that Internet panel and telephone survey respondents do not show a higher yeah-saying tendency than do people responding to a postal mail survey. Participants in web panel surveys also use the range of rating scales similarly compared to postal mail participants. Telephone survey respondents used a wider range of rating scale options. This may be due to primacy and recency effects of the response options. Internet pop-up surveys seem to lead to more yeah-saying, while respondents also use a narrower range of the rating scale.
    • Need for closure and media use and preference of youngsters

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      This study examines the explanatory power of an individual difference variable, Need for Closure (NFCL) for media use and preferences for specific media, genres and channels. Results of the study show that high and low NFCL youngsters do not differ in the amount of time spent on cognitive undemanding media (TV, radio, music). However, high (versus low) NFCL youngsters engage less in cognitive effortful activities like reading newspapers and surfing the Internet. Furthermore, high and low NFCL youngsters have a preference for a similar scope of genres and channels. More specifically, high NFCL youngsters prefer well-respected, conventional and less cognitive complex genres and channels. Low NFCL youngsters prefer more alternative, non-conformists, critical and intellectually stimulating genres and channels. Results are discussed and practical implications are provided. Keywords: Media use, media preferences, individual differences, motivation
    • Need for closure and youngsters' leisure time preferences

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      The Need for Closure is introduced as an individual characteristic that can help explain individual differences in engagement in leisure activities. Both a leisure engagement inventory and a validated Dutch version of the Need for Closure Scale were administered to a convenience sample of 1035 young adults aged between 15 and 24 of which about 54% were female. As hypothesized, leisure engagement differs for groups differing in Need for Closure. More specifically, youngsters who have a high (versus low) Need for Closure engaged more in structured, cognitively effortless and predictable leisure activities like shopping for fun and going to the cinema, while young adults low (versus high) in Need for Closure more often participated in unstructured, unpredictable, cognitively effortful or challenging leisure activities like going to a party, a pub, or a pop concert, idly lazing away, visiting or hosting friends, attending an evening class and playing computer games.
    • Need for closure, gender and social self-esteem of youngsters

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      The present study focuses on social self-esteem of youngsters (i.e. esteem derived from approval of others), a widespread, important pursuit of youngsters in modern society. More specifically, we explored the relationship between social self-esteem on the one hand, and an individual difference measure, Need for Closure, and gender on the other hand. Results show that NFCL and gender significantly relate to social self-esteem values like eagerness for approval and tranquility, achievement pressure and competence orientation, individualism, independency and appearance mindedness. NFCL and gender also affect youngster's social esteem related self-images. In addition, interesting interaction effects were identified. Limitations and directions for future research are suggested. Keywords: Need for Closure, Values, Self-Image, Gender, Social Self-Esteem.
    • (R)E-tail satisfaction: retail customer satisfaction in online and offline contexts

      Weijters, Bert; Schillewaert, Niels (2006)
      Building on the e-Satisfaction model proposed by Szymanski and Hise (2000) and further validated by Evanschitzky, Iyer, Hesse, and Ahlert (2004), we develop an instrument to measure shopper satisfaction in online and offline retail contexts: the (R)E-Tail Satisfaction scale. Using data from an online (N=202) and an offline (N=441) grocery shopper sample, the instrument is shown to be fit for cross-channel evaluation of levels of satisfaction and its antecedents. We find full metric invariance (identical factor loadings), sufficient partial scalar invariance (identical item intercepts for at least two items per construct), as well as some interesting structural differences. Most notably, online shoppers evaluate the facets of retail satisfaction generally lower than do offline shoppers.
    • Relationship Marketing Effectiveness in Retailing: A Contingency Approach

      Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby; De Wulf, Kristof; Reynolds, K. (Maastricht Universiteit, 2000)