• Making competencies cross business unit boundaries: the interplay between inter-unit coordination, trust and knowledge transferability

      Willem, Annick; Buelens, Marc (Vlerick Business School, 2003)
      The strategic value of knowledge sharing has long been recognized but valuable competencies are too often locked in one business unit. This paper provides insight into the role of organizational factors in spreading complex bundles of knowledge among business units. A study in a British multinational confirms the importance of knowledge transferability, headquarters' role, the close relationship between standardization and knowledge sharing, and the ambiguous role of informal networking.
    • Making sense of a new employment relationship: psychological contract-related information seeking and the role of work values and locus of control

      De Vos, Ans; Buyens, Dirk; Schalk, M.J.D. (René) (Vlerick Business School, 2003)
      This paper explores the information-seeking behaviors newcomers engage in relating to their psychological contract and addresses the impact of work values (Autonomy, Advancement, Group Orientation and Economic Rewards) and Work Locus of Control. We propose that these individual characteristics could explain differences in the frequency with which newcomers search for information about the promises their employer has made to them. A two-wave longitudinal study was conducted in which 527 newcomers from eight organizations (representing 3 sectors) participated. The results largely support the proposed relationships between work values and contract-related information seeking, while the relation between Work Locus of Control and contract-related information seeking is rather weak. Implications for psychological contract formation are discussed.
    • Managerial learning from on-the-job experiences: an integrative framework to guide future research

      Wouters, Karen; Buyens, Dirk (2006)
      Both scholars and practitioners increasingly attest to the importance of developmental on-the-job (OTJ) experiences as the primary source of managerial learning. However, there is no single theory of managerial OTJ learning, several elements are missing in the conceptualization of the developmental OTJ experience construct, no comprehensive nomological network of the construct has been developed so far, and the underlying mechanisms explaining the relationship with relevant learning outcomes have not been examined in depth. In response to these shortcomings, current paper proposes an integrative framework of managerial learning from developmental OTJ experiences. First, we suggest developing a better understanding of the developmental OTJ experience construct by considering it from a scope beyond the managers' job assignments, by also including more quantitative measures of OTJ experience and by looking further than the current job. Next, the central variable of interest is linked to individual and situational variables that influence directly the extent to which managers are confronted with developmental OTJ experiences as well as involve conditions that enhance or inhibit managerial learning (i.e. moderating mechanisms). Finally, our model emphasizes the importance to take into account relevant mediating mechanisms in order to fully understand the impact of OTJ experiences on managerial learning. Building on our model, we conclude with a discussion of promising avenues for future research.
    • Managing the design-manufacturing interface

      Vandevelde, Anneke; Van Dierdonck, Roland; Clarysse, Bart (Vlerick Business School, 2002)
      This article describes the major barriers across the design-manufacturing interface and examines ways to overcome them to achieve a smooth production start-up. An integration model reveals that formalization facilitates a smooth production start-up. Independent of the degree of formalization during the early development stages, a formal approach is preferred when the new product is introduced into production. Another facilitating factor is the empathy from design towards manufacturing, which can be stimulated by managerial actions. Although the complexity and newness of product and technology hinder a smooth production start-up, their effect seems to vanish by introducing formalization and by striving for a design team that has empathy towards manufacturing.
    • Managing the psychological contract of graduate recruits: a challenge for human resource management

      Buyens, Dirk; De Vos, Ans (UGent, Fac. Economie & Bedrijfskunde, 2001)
    • Managing with style: a qualitative study on how cognitve styles influence managerial behaviour

      Cools, Eva; Van den Broeck, Herman (2006)
      Our study aims to contribute to an enhanced understanding of how cognitive styles, being individual preferences for perceiving and processing information, influence managerial behaviour using a qualitative approach. Based on content analysis of written testimonies of 100 managers, we found interesting differences between managers with a knowing, planning, and creating style with regard to both task-oriented behaviour (decision making) and people-oriented behaviour (conflict management, interpersonal relationships). Although the tasks of different managers are largely the same, our study demonstrates that not all managers execute their job in the same way. Our results complement previous quantitative research on the link between cognitive styles and managerial behaviour. Although there is a wide theoretical and empirical interest in cognitive styles, qualitative studies that might provide further support to the practical relevance of cognitive styles for organisations is currently lacking. Because of the pivotal role of strong management and executive leadership on employee attitudes and financial performance, it is important to better understand the manager's characteristics. Our results may contribute to increased managerial self-awareness about the impact of their individual preferences on their management style. Keywords: cognitive styles, managerial job, qualitative study
    • Market feedback, cost system choice and competitve pricing: the advantage of not being a leader

      Cardinaels, Eddy; Roodhooft, Filip; Warlop, Luk; Van Herck, Gustaaf (Vlerick Business School, 2004)
      This study experimentally investigates the value of cost report accuracy in an interactive pricing context. Market agents received feedback about their own profits via either a volume-based costing or a more accurate activity-based costing report. They also received a typical market report containing the performance of their rivals. While prior work suggested that market discipline and learning from salient competitors can overcome performance decrements due to inaccurate costing, our results imply that the corrective nature of market feedback depends on the decision maker's role in the competitive play. Compared to other participants, decision makers endowed with the role of a 'reputational' market leader are less effective in screening available market feedback because they predominantly fixate on their own cost data. Even when receiving biased volume-based costing, reputational leaders ignore valuable market signals of opponents having access to more accurate cost data. Consequently other market players can take advantage of them.
    • Measurement bias due to response styles: a structural equation model assessing the effects of modes of data-collection

      Weijters, Bert; Schillewaert, Niels; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2004)
      This paper validates measures of response styles as latent variables using structural equation modeling. Next to measurement validation the main objective is to assess whether different modes of data collection bring along measurement bias due to response styles. Results indicate that Internet panel and telephone survey respondents do not show a higher yeah-saying tendency than do people responding to a postal mail survey. Participants in web panel surveys also use the range of rating scales similarly compared to postal mail participants. Telephone survey respondents used a wider range of rating scale options. This may be due to primacy and recency effects of the response options. Internet pop-up surveys seem to lead to more yeah-saying, while respondents also use a narrower range of the rating scale.
    • Meta-heuristic resource constrained project scheduling: solution space restrictions and neighbourhood extensions

      Debels, Dieter; Vanhoucke, Mario (2006)
      The resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) has been extensively investigated during the past decades. Due to its strongly NP-hard status and the need for solving large realistic project instances, the recent focus has shifted from exact optimisation procedures to (meta-) heuristic approaches. In this paper, we extend some existing state-of-the-art RCPSP procedures in two ways. First, we extensively test a decomposition approach that splits problem instances into smaller sub-problems to be solved with an (exact or heuristic) procedure, and re-incorporates the obtained solutions for the sub-problems into the solution of the main problem, possibly leading to an overall better solution. Second, we study the influence of an extended neighbourhood search on the performance of a meta-heuristic procedure. Computational results reveal that both techniques are valuable extensions and lead to improved results.
    • Mobilizing cities towards a low carbon future: tambourines, carrots and sticks

      Meeus, Leonardo; Delarue, Erik (Florence School of Regulation, 2011)
    • Modeling the cost of achieving a renewable energy target: does it pay to cooperate across borders?

      Saguan, Marcelo; Meeus, Leonardo (Florence School of Regulation, 2011)
    • Modelling limited dependent variables: methods and guidelines for researchers in strategic management

      Bowen, Harry; Wiersema, Margarethe (Vlerick Business School, 2003)
      Research on strategic choices available to the firm are often modeled as a limited number of possible decision outcomes and leads to a discrete limited dependent variable. A limited dependent variable can also arise when values of a continuous dependent variable are partially or wholly unobserved. This chapter discusses the methodological issues associated with such phenomena and the appropriate statistical methods developed to allow for consistent and efficient estimation of models that involve a limited dependent variable. The chapter also provides a road map for selecting the appropriate statistical technique and it offers guidelines for consistent interpretation and reporting of the statistical results.
    • More management concepts in the academy. Internationalization as an organizational change process

      Kondakci, Yasar; Van den Broeck, Herman; Devos, Geert (2006)
      The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the internationalization process in higher education as an organizational level managerial issue. This approach brings a new perspective to internationalization in higher education. This is believed to be a necessary step toward filling a gap in the internationalization of higher education discussions. Nevertheless, the purpose of the study is not to falsify the dominant discussion in the literature. Rather, adopting the organizational change process conceptualization, this paper aims to fill a gap in the ongoing discussion on internationalization in the literature. To do this, the authors adopted the commonly accepted organizational change model of Burke and Litwin (1992) and made a comprehensive discussion on both transformational (external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, and organizational culture) and transactional (structure, task requirements and individual skills, individual needs and values, motivation, management practices, systems, climate) domains of the model from the perspective of internationalization in higher education. This approach is expected to clarify process, content, and context aspects of internationalization, which is essential for successful internationalization implementation.
    • Multi-National or Multi-Regional: a new look at MNC and Globalization

      De Koning, A.; Subramanian, Venkat; Verdin, Paul (2000)
    • National institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort

      Bowen, Harry; De Clercq, Dirk (2005)
      This paper examines how the allocation of entrepreneurial effort within a country is influenced by the country's institutional environment. We hypothesize that the likelihood that entrepreneurs launch a growth-oriented start-up is associated with the institutional environment in which entrepreneurs are embedded. We test our hypothesis using data on 44 countries over the three-year period from 2002 to 2004. The data are drawn from two sources: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey. Our findings indicate that the likelihood of a growth-oriented start-up is positively related to a country's level of human capital targeted at entrepreneurship and the level of regulatory protection, but is negatively related to the extent of corruption and mistrust in public officials. JEL categories: D21, M13, O49 Keywords: institutions, entrepreneurship, resource, allocation
    • Navigating the culture theory jungle: divergence and convergence in models of national culture

      Nardon, Luciara (2006)
      Research on cultural differences in management has been facilitated and hindered by the existence of multiple models of national culture. In this paper we briefly review the most popular models of national culture, identify the convergences and divergences among them. We suggest that a clear need exists to seek convergence across the various models where it exists in ways that facilitate both research and meaningful cross-cultural comparisons. We seek such convergence by identifying five relative common themes that pervade the various models. Based on these themes, new country ratings are offered based on multiple evaluative strategies and tools.
    • Need for closure and media use and preference of youngsters

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (Vlerick Business School, 2005)
      This study examines the explanatory power of an individual difference variable, Need for Closure (NFCL) for media use and preferences for specific media, genres and channels. Results of the study show that high and low NFCL youngsters do not differ in the amount of time spent on cognitive undemanding media (TV, radio, music). However, high (versus low) NFCL youngsters engage less in cognitive effortful activities like reading newspapers and surfing the Internet. Furthermore, high and low NFCL youngsters have a preference for a similar scope of genres and channels. More specifically, high NFCL youngsters prefer well-respected, conventional and less cognitive complex genres and channels. Low NFCL youngsters prefer more alternative, non-conformists, critical and intellectually stimulating genres and channels. Results are discussed and practical implications are provided. Keywords: Media use, media preferences, individual differences, motivation