• National institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort

      Bowen, Harry; De Clercq, Dirk (2005)
      This paper examines how the allocation of entrepreneurial effort within a country is influenced by the country's institutional environment. We hypothesize that the likelihood that entrepreneurs launch a growth-oriented start-up is associated with the institutional environment in which entrepreneurs are embedded. We test our hypothesis using data on 44 countries over the three-year period from 2002 to 2004. The data are drawn from two sources: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey. Our findings indicate that the likelihood of a growth-oriented start-up is positively related to a country's level of human capital targeted at entrepreneurship and the level of regulatory protection, but is negatively related to the extent of corruption and mistrust in public officials. JEL categories: D21, M13, O49 Keywords: institutions, entrepreneurship, resource, allocation
    • Navigating the culture theory jungle: divergence and convergence in models of national culture

      Nardon, Luciara (2006)
      Research on cultural differences in management has been facilitated and hindered by the existence of multiple models of national culture. In this paper we briefly review the most popular models of national culture, identify the convergences and divergences among them. We suggest that a clear need exists to seek convergence across the various models where it exists in ways that facilitate both research and meaningful cross-cultural comparisons. We seek such convergence by identifying five relative common themes that pervade the various models. Based on these themes, new country ratings are offered based on multiple evaluative strategies and tools.
    • Need for closure and media use and preference of youngsters

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (2005)
      This study examines the explanatory power of an individual difference variable, Need for Closure (NFCL) for media use and preferences for specific media, genres and channels. Results of the study show that high and low NFCL youngsters do not differ in the amount of time spent on cognitive undemanding media (TV, radio, music). However, high (versus low) NFCL youngsters engage less in cognitive effortful activities like reading newspapers and surfing the Internet. Furthermore, high and low NFCL youngsters have a preference for a similar scope of genres and channels. More specifically, high NFCL youngsters prefer well-respected, conventional and less cognitive complex genres and channels. Low NFCL youngsters prefer more alternative, non-conformists, critical and intellectually stimulating genres and channels. Results are discussed and practical implications are provided. Keywords: Media use, media preferences, individual differences, motivation
    • Need for closure and youngsters' leisure time preferences

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (2005)
      The Need for Closure is introduced as an individual characteristic that can help explain individual differences in engagement in leisure activities. Both a leisure engagement inventory and a validated Dutch version of the Need for Closure Scale were administered to a convenience sample of 1035 young adults aged between 15 and 24 of which about 54% were female. As hypothesized, leisure engagement differs for groups differing in Need for Closure. More specifically, youngsters who have a high (versus low) Need for Closure engaged more in structured, cognitively effortless and predictable leisure activities like shopping for fun and going to the cinema, while young adults low (versus high) in Need for Closure more often participated in unstructured, unpredictable, cognitively effortful or challenging leisure activities like going to a party, a pub, or a pop concert, idly lazing away, visiting or hosting friends, attending an evening class and playing computer games.
    • Need for closure, gender and social self-esteem of youngsters

      Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie (2005)
      The present study focuses on social self-esteem of youngsters (i.e. esteem derived from approval of others), a widespread, important pursuit of youngsters in modern society. More specifically, we explored the relationship between social self-esteem on the one hand, and an individual difference measure, Need for Closure, and gender on the other hand. Results show that NFCL and gender significantly relate to social self-esteem values like eagerness for approval and tranquility, achievement pressure and competence orientation, individualism, independency and appearance mindedness. NFCL and gender also affect youngster's social esteem related self-images. In addition, interesting interaction effects were identified. Limitations and directions for future research are suggested. Keywords: Need for Closure, Values, Self-Image, Gender, Social Self-Esteem.
    • New computational results for the discrete time/cost trade-off problem with time-switch constraints

      Vanhoucke, Mario (2002)
      Recently, time-switch constraints have been introduced in literature by Yang and Chen (2000). Basically, these constraints impose a specified starting time on the project activities and force them to be inactive during specified time periods. This type of constraints have been incorporated into the well-known discrete time/cost trade-off problem in order to cope with day, night and weekend shifts. In this paper, we propose a new branch-and-bound algorithm which outperforms the previous one by Vanhoucke et al. (2002a). The procedure makes use of a lower bound calculation for the discrete time/cost trade-off problem (without time-switch constraints). The procedure has been coded in Visual C++, version 6.0 under Windows 2000 and has been validated on a randomly generated problem set. Keywords: Project Management, CPM, Time/cost trade-off problem, Time-switch constraints.
    • New computational results for the nurse scheduling problem: A scatter search algorithm

      Maenhout, Broos; Vanhoucke, Mario (2006)
      In this paper, we present a scatter search algorithm for the well-known nurse scheduling problem (NSP). This problem aims at the construction of roster schedules for nurses taking both hard and soft constraints into account. The objective is to minimize the total preference cost of the nurses and the total penalty cost from violations of the soft constraints. The problem is known to be NP-hard. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we are, to the best of our knowledge, the first to present a scatter search algorithm for the NSP. Second, we investigate two different types of solution combination methods in the scatter search framework, based on four different cost elements. Last, we present detailed computational experiments on a benchmark dataset presented recently, and solve these problem instances under different assumptions. We show that our procedure performs consistently well under many different circumstances, and hence, can be considered as robust against case-specific constraints. Keywords: meta-heuristics, scatter search, nurse scheduling
    • North meets South: A call for inclusive global research

      Boros, Smaranda; Bosch, Anita; Shymko, Yuliya (2020)
      The COVID-19 pandemic is emphasising the extent of inequalities, both between and within societies. In the dynamics between nations, these inequalities revolve around the reliance on international funding bodies for humanitarian aid — and what happens when these big funders withdraw their support. It is exposing heightened territorial, us-vs them dynamics of hoarding and a crisis of global solidarity.
    • Offshoring as a Survival Strategy in Globalizing Industries: New Evidence from Belgian Manufacturing

      Coucke, Kristien; Sleuwaegen, Leo (2007)
      This paper analyzes the impact of globalization on the exit behavior of manufacturing firms in one of the world's most open economies: Belgium. We find that imports from low-wage countries exert a strong competitive effect that lowers a firm's chances of survival. This competitive effect is found to arise mainly in industries where intra-industry trade, an indicator of product differentiation, is relatively low. As an offensive strategy to cope with the rising competitive pressure from imports, we find that firms exploiting opportunities afforded by globalization, in particular the off-shoring of activities, are able to improve their chances of survival. Making a distinction between domestic firms and subsidiaries of multinational firms, we also find that domestic firms face a higher risk of exit when multinational firms compete in their relevant input and output markets. Finally, we show that subsidiaries of multinational firms are better adapted to cope with globalization forces, and we find them to be less sensitive to domestic market conditions in the host country. Keywords: Exit, Off-shoring, Sourcing, Globalization JEL Code: F1, F23, L2
    • On the morphological structure of a network

      Vanhoucke, Mario; Coelho, José; Debels, Dieter; Tavares, Luis (2004)
      In literature, both topological and resource-related measures are used to predict the difficulty of a project scheduling problem. Rapid progress regarding solution procedures has resulted in the development of a number of data generators in order to generate instances under a controlled design and in different standard sets with problem instances. These complexity measures need to serve as predictors for the complexity of the problem under study. In this paper, we report on results for the topological structure of a network. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we review six topological network indicators in order to describe the structure of a network in a detailed way. These indicators were originally developed by [20] and have been modified or sometimes completely replaced by alternative indicators in order to give a better description of the topology of a network. Secondly, we generate a large amount of different networks with four network generators. This allows us to draw conclusions on both the performance of different network generators and to give a critical remark on well-known datasets from literature. Our general conclusions are that none of the network generators are able to capture the complete feasible domain of all networks. Moreover, each network generator covers its own network-specific domain and, consequently, contributes to the generation of instance data sets. Finally, we perform computational results on the well-known resource-constrained project scheduling problem to proof that our indicators are reliable and have significant predictive power to serve as complexity indicators. Keywords: Networks, Topological structure, Graphs, Project Scheduling instances
    • On the Morphological Structure of a Network

      Vanhoucke, Mario; Coelho, José; Tavares, Luis; Debels, Dieter (2004)
    • On the performance of listed private equity

      Ain Tommar, Sara (2018)
      Listed private equity (LPE) refers to publicly-traded investment companies whose activity is to invest in privately-held companies or in traditional private equity funds. The recent years have witnessed a slew of such listings and many investors were offered exposure to traditional private equity investments (TPE) through LPE. While listed private equity and traditional private equity have the same investment universe, we argue that the performance of the latter does not pertain to LPE. We build a representative dataset of the LPE universe and compare their performance to TPE. We examine whether belonging to indices and having minimum liquidity requirements is linked to performance. Our results suggest that listing significantly deteriorates absolute performance measures but is positively and significantly related to better investment multiples.
    • Open banking: opening the gates - Framework for an open banking strategy

      Cumps, Bjorn; Muylle, Steve; Standaert, Willem (2019)
      The European regulations on open banking, which will enter into force on 14 September, will not cause any big bang on the Belgian financial market. Customers must first become aware of the many benefits that open banking has to offer. What is more, the law is limited to current accounts and payments. What is certain, however, is that open banking can drastically reconfigure the landscape of the financial sector. There are already indications that the hitherto relatively closed banks with a dominant market position are beginning to transform into open ecosystem players that embrace digital innovation.
    • Open Innovation and R&D Globalization

      Vanhaverbeke, Wim; von Zedtwitz, Max; Du, Jingshu
    • Opening the black box of efficiency measurement: input allocation in multi-output settings

      Cherchye, Laurens; De Rock, Bram; Dierynck, Bart; Roodhooft, Filip; Sabbe, Jeroen (2011)
    • Openness to organizational change: the contribution of content, context, and process

      Devos, Geert; Buelens, Marc (2003)
      The present study examined the contribution to employees' openness to change of the content, context, and process of organizational transformation. The threatening character of organizational change (content variable), trust in executive management, trust in the supervisor, history of change (context variables), and participation in the change effort (process variable) were predicted to have a positive effect on openness to change. Hypotheses were tested in two separate studies (N = 828 and N = 835) using experimental vignettes. A first study crossed four variables in a fully crossed 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design. Results showed significant main effects and no interaction effects for content, context, and process. A second study, with a fully crossed 2 × 2 design crossed two context variables, history of change and trust in top management. Results showed significant main and significant interaction effects. It was only when history of change and trust in executive management were low that openness to change dramatically decreased.