• The field of cognitive styles: From a theoretical review to the construction of the cognitive style inventory

      Van den Broeck, Herman; Vanderheyden, Karlien; Cools, Eva (2003)
      Cognitive styles gained prominence in organizational behavior and management literature during the last decades. Researchers studied cognitive styles in relationship to various concepts and from various points of view. Different authors developed their own instruments of assessment to identify differences in cognitive styles. However, this theoretical and empirical pluralism makes the field of cognitive styles rather confusing and leads to inconsistent measurement results. Several authors try to create order in the diverse field by integration of the different theories. With this state of affairs in mind, the purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to demarcate and define succintly the field of cognitive style research. Secondly, we want to present our research on cognitive styles, which led tot the development of the Cognitive Style Inventory (CoSI). We are currently finalising the validation and cross-validation of our self-report questionnaire. The theoretical background of the questionnaire is presented. Because of the usefulness of the cognitive style concept for organizations, clarification of the research field and the development of a useful questionnaire to measure individual differences in cognitive styles are necessary.
    • The Four Dimensional Impact of Color on Shoppers' Emotions

      De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Geuens, Maggie; Anckaert, Pascal (2002)
    • The impact of foreign-based competition on firm diversification: a resource-based perspective

      Bowen, Harry; Wiersema, Margarethe (2003)
      The globalization of industries over the past two decades has resulted in domestic markets facing increasing inroads by foreign competitors. Utilizing resource-based theory, this paper examines how increased foreign competition impacts a firm's diversification strategy. Building on the important role of a firm's core competences as the basis for sustainable competitive advantage, we postulate that increased foreign-based competition, as measured by the degree of import penetration in a firm's core business industry, will engender a defensive response by the firm to protect its core business. This defensive response will in turn lead the firm to focus on its core business at the expense of non-core business activities with a consequent reduction in the firm's level of diversification. In addition, we conjecture that this increased focus and reduction in diversification will be greater the more attractive is the firm's core business to the firm and the more attractive is the firm's core industry. Our empirical analysis is conducted using a unique panel data set of both diversified and undiversified U.S. firms over the period 1985-1994. The special nature of the data sample raises important methodological and statistical issues which are addressed here by the use of a nonlinear TOBIT procedure. Our results indicate strong support for the hypothesized negative relationship between firm diversification and foreign-based competition. Moreover, we find significant evidence that this negative relationship is moderated by the attractiveness of a firm's core business industry, the profitability of the firm's core business and overall firm performance. These findings lend support to the resource-based theory of the firm and they suggest that the observed trend in corporate refocusing over the last decade has, to a significant extent, been driven by increased foreign-based competition.
    • The Impact of Quality on Store Loyalty: A Contingency Approach

      Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby; De Wulf, Kristof; e.a. (2000)
    • The impact of trust on private equity contracts

      Manigart, Sophie; Korsgaard, Audrey M.; Folger, R.; Sapienza, Harry J.; Baeyens, Katleen (2002)
      This paper adresses the impact of trust on private equity contracts. Trust between investor and entrepreneur is essential to help overcome control problems, especially in an environment with severe agency risks and incomplete contracts. In this study, information about the effects of trust is collected using a simulation with 144 entrepreneurs and investors. We find that trust has an impact on the desired contracts of entrepreneurs, but not on that of investors. Our findings suggest that for parties, faced with potentially large agency problems (investors), trust and control seem to play complementary roles. On the other hand, for parties faced with smaller agency problems (entrepreneurs), trust seems to be a substitute for control.
    • The impact of various activity assumptions on the lead-time and resource utilization of resource-constrained projects

      Debels, Dieter; Vanhoucke, Mario (2006)
      The well-known resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) schedules project activities within the precedence and renewable resource constraints while minimizing the total lead-time of the project. The basic problem description assumes non-pre-emptive activities with fixed durations, and has been extended to various other assumptions in literature. In this paper, we investigate the effect of three activity assumptions on the total lead-time and the total resource utilization of a project. More precisely, we investigate the influence of variable activity durations under a fixed work content, the possibility of allowing activity pre-emption and the use of fast tracking to decrease a project's duration. We give an overview of the procedures developed in literature and present some modifications to existing solution approaches to cope with our activity assumptions under study. We present computational results on a generated dataset and evaluate the impact of all assumptions on the quality of the schedule.
    • The influence of experiential, inherited and external knowledge on the internationalization of venture capital firms

      De Prijcker, Sofie; Manigart, Sophie; Wright, Mike; De Maeseneire, Wouter (2011)
    • The influence of topic involvement on mail survey response behavior

      De Wulf, Kristof; Van Kenhove, Patrick; Wijnen, Katrien (2003)
      This study experimentally investigated the influence of topic involvement on mail survey response rate and speed. The results show that response rates were higher for topics that are generally considered as high involvement than for topics that are generally considered as low involvement. Moreover, we observed an interesting interaction effect. On the one hand, a positive and significant relationship existed between topic involvement and response rate for topics that on average are viewed as high involvement, leading to a non-response bias. On the other hand, no significant relationship was found between topic involvement and response rate for topics that on average are viewed as low involvement. Finally, we were not able to observe a relationship between topic involvement and response speed for topics that are, on average, either high or low involvement.
    • The interface between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility and its relevance for the financial and insurance sector

      Van den Berghe, Lutgart; Louche, Céline (2004)
      Based on the argument that Corporate Social Responsibility is not just a fashion but rather the future from another angle, this paper explores the link between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility in insurance. Although insurance industries have been less exposed to criticisms than other sectors, like any other business, they are subject to increasing societal scrutiny. After a reconsideration of the corporate governance paradigms and mechanisms, the paper analyses the relevance of corporate social responsibility and corporate governance for the insurance sector. It explores its positive and negative externalities and its role as institutional investor. The paper also provides policy recommendations for mainstreaming corporate social responsibility within the sector.
    • The internationalization of small and medium-sized firms: the role of organizational learning effort and entrepreneurial orientation

      De Clercq, Dirk; Sapienza, Harry J.; Crijns, Hans (2003)
      This paper contributes to the existing research by integrating the notions of organizational learning and entrepreneurial orientation into the body of international entrepreneurship. Our primary framework combines learning theory and the new venture theory of internationalization to study the extent to which small and medium-sized companies engage in international activities. In order to focus on firms likely to engage in significant cross-border activity, we used a survey instrument to collect data from small and medium-sized firms located in Belgium. We found that the firms' international learning effort and entrepreneurial orientation are positively associated with internationalization intent whereas domestic learning effort is negatively related with internationalization intent. Overall, our results suggest (1) that intensive knowledge renewal and exploitation regarding foreign markets and the internationalization process itself may increase internationalization by affecting the perceptions of opportunities offered by further international expansion, and (2) that firms with an entrepreneurial mindset may be more likely to develop a long-term, substantial presence in the international arena, compared to firms that are more reactive or conservative. However, our results also suggest that firms that invest in domestic learning activities, as opposed to international learning activities, may be less likely to internationalize further.