This paper addresses the results of a study about the antecedents of the anticipatory psychological contract of graduate students entering the labor market. The anticipatory psychological contract (ACP) is conceptualized as an incomplete mental model about the conditions of the future employment relationship (the employee and employer contributions being part of this deal). Departing from earlier research on the importance of the anticipatory psychological contract as a determinant of employee evaluations regarding their employment relationship, we examine to which extent these pre-employment perceptions are affected by individual career-related antecedents (optimism, career strategy, individual career management and work importance). The results of an empirical study among 1409 graduate students largely confirm the proposed hypotheses. Mainly those dimensions of the ACP that are related to career perspective and job content are significantly affected by the antecedents included in our model. Graduates with a high score on careerism, who engage in a high level of individual career management and with management ambitions, have stronger expectations regarding these inducements. With regard to their own commitment toward their future employer, mainly the dimensions flexibility and employability are affected by these antecedents.
The aim of this study is to investigate the employment implications of different downsizing approaches. Thereforewe executed 19 case studies in Belgian organizations that recently were confronted with downsizing. Based on the results empirical study a two-dimensional categorization model is developed. The first continuum of the model represents the time frame (reactive to proactive) of downsizing strategies, while the second continuum represents the focus of reorientation practices towards the internal or external labor market. Based on this categorization scheme, employment implications were explored. Further, theoretical, managerial and governmental implications are suggested. Keywords: Downsizing, labor market, employee reorientation.
Research on cultural differences in management has been facilitated and hindered by the existence of multiple models of national culture. In this paper we briefly review the most popular models of national culture, identify the convergences and divergences among them. We suggest that a clear need exists to seek convergence across the various models where it exists in ways that facilitate both research and meaningful cross-cultural comparisons. We seek such convergence by identifying five relative common themes that pervade the various models. Based on these themes, new country ratings are offered based on multiple evaluative strategies and tools.
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