Now showing items 1-20 of 5836

    • Anforderungsprofil und Ausbildung zum Innovationsmanager

      Piller, Frank; Weller, Christian; Kleer, Robin (Symposion Publishing, 2014)
    • Business models with additive manufacturing - Opportunities and challenges from the perspective of economics and management

      Piller, Frank; Weller, Christian; Kleer, Robin (Springer, Cham, 2014)
      Technological innovation has frequently been shown to systematically change market structure and value creation. Additive manufacturing (AM), or, colloquially 3D printing, is such a disruptive technology (Berman 2012; Vance 2012). Economic analysis of AM still is scarce and has predominantly focused on production cost or other firm level aspects (e.g., Mellor et al. 2014; Petrovic et al. 2011; Ruffo and Hague 2007), but has neglected the study of AM on value creation and market structure. In this paper, we want to discuss the economic effects of AM on the locus of innovation and production. This is why we first review some current business models that successfully use AM as a source of value creation. Being a potential disruptive influence on market structures, we then discuss how AM may enable a more local production by users, supplementing the recent development of an upcoming infrastructure for innovating users and “Makers”.
    • Three essays on competition policy and innovation incentives

      Kleer, Robin (2009)
      This thesis deals with the economics of innovation. In a general introduction we illustrate how several aspects of competition policy are linked to firms’ innovation incentives. In three individual essays we analyze more specific issues. The first essay deals with interdependencies of mergers and innovation incentives. This is particularly relevant as both topics are central elements of a firm’s competitive strategy. The essay focuses on the impact of mergers on innovative activity and competition in the product market. Possible inefficiencies due to organizational problems of mergers are accounted for. We show that optimal investment strategies depend on the resulting market structure and differ significantly from insider to outsider. In our linear model mergers turn out to increase social surplus. The second essay analyzes the different competitive advantages of large and small firms in innovation competition. While large firms typically have a better access to product markets, small firms often have a superior R&D efficiency. These distinct advantages immediately lead to the question of cooperations between firms. In our model we allow large firms to acquire small firms. In a pre-contest acquisition game large firms bid sequentially for small firms in order to combine respective advantages. Innovation competition is modeled as a patent contest. Sequential bidding allows the first large firms to bid strategically to induce a reaction of its competitor. For high efficiencies large firms prefer to acquire immediately, leading to a symmetric market structure. For low efficiencies strategic waiting of the first large firm leads to an asymmetric market structure even though the initial situation is symmetric. Furthermore, acquisitions increase the chances for successful innovation. The third essay deals with government subsidies to innovation. Government subsidies for R&D are intended to promote projects with high returns to society but too little private returns to be beneficial for private investors. Apart from the direct funding of these projects, government grants may serve as a signal of good investments for private investors. We use a simple signaling model to capture this phenomenon and allow for two types of risk classes. The agency has a preference for high risk projects as they promise high expected social returns, whereas banks prefer low risk projects with high private returns. In a setup where the subsidy can only be used to distinguish between high and low risk projects, government agency’s signal is not very helpful for banks’ investment decision. However, if the subsidy is accompanied by a quality signal, it may lead to increased or better selected private investments. The last chapter summarizes the main findings and presents some concluding remarks on the results of the essays
    • Acquisitions in a patent contest model with large and small firms

      Kleer, Robin (Springer, 2009)
      Big companies and small innovation factories possess different advantages in a patent contest. While large firms typically have better access to product markets, small firms often have a superior R&D efficiency. These distinct advantages immediately lead to the question of cooperations between firms. In this paper, we model a patent contest with heterogeneous firms. In a pre-contest acquisition game large firms bid sequentially for small firms to combine respective advantages. Sequential bidding allows the first large firms to bid strategically to induce a reaction of its competitor. For high efficiencies both large firms prefer to acquire immediately leading to a symmetric market structure. For low efficiencies strategic waiting of the first large firm leads to an asymmetric market structure even though the initial situation is symmetric. We also discuss two different timing setups of the acquisition stage. In all setups, acquisitions increase the chances for a successful innovation.
    • Government R&D subsidies as a signal for private investors

      Kleer, Robin (Elsevier, 2010)
      Government subsidies for R&D are intended to promote projects with high returns to society but too little private returns to be beneficial for private investors. This may be caused by spillovers or a low appropriability rate. Apart from the direct funding of these projects, government grants may serve as a signal for good investments for private investors. We use a simple signaling model with different types of R&D projects to capture this phenomenon. The agency has a preference for basic research projects as they promise high expected social returns, while banks prefer applied research projects with high private returns. In a setup where the subsidy can only be used to distinguish between basic and applied research projects, government agency’s signal is not very helpful for banks. However, if the subsidy is accompanied by a quality signal, it can lead to increased or better selected private investments.
    • F&E komplementarit aten bei KMU

      Kleer, Robin (Duncker und Humblot GmbH, 2012)
    • The effect of mergers on the incentive to invest in cost-reducing innovations

      Kleer, Robin (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2012)
      Both mergers and innovation are central elements of a firm's competitive strategy. However, model-theoretical analysis of the merger-innovation link is sparse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of mergers on innovative activities and product market competition in the context of incremental process innovations. Inefficiencies due to organizational problems of mergers are accounted for. We show that optimal investment strategies depend on the resulting market structure and differ significantly from insider to outsider. In our linear model mergers turn out to increase social surplus.
    • Acquisition through innovation tournaments in high-tech industries: A comparative perspective

      Kleer, Robin; Wagner, Marcus (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2013)
      Acquisition of innovative firms is a widely observed phenomenon in high-tech industries. On the basis of distinct advantages of large and small firms, in this paper, we build a tournament model with possible acquisition activity of large firms to derive hypotheses on interdependencies between acquisition frequency and post-acquisition success rates. We find empirical support for our hypotheses that (1) acquisitions increase overall innovation output and (2) that the number of acquisitions is higher in industries with larger heterogeneity between established firms and young start-ups. However, our third hypothesis derived from the formal model that innovation success following from acquisitions varies across industries is only partially confirmed.
    • Strategies for lowering barriers for nanotechnology commercialization: Theory and results of an empirical study in Europe

      Kleer, Robin; Siems, Florian (International Academy of Business and Ecomomics, 2013)
      This paper analyses the nanotechnology industry with respect to the application of open innovation. By analyzing different open innovation practices first in a theoretical discussion, we identified the broadcast search mechanism as the open innovation method with a great potential to overcome the commercialization barrier in nanotechnology. First, broadcast search aims at a better directed, target oriented research and second, it helps to improve matching between supply and demand of research. The characteristics of nanotechnology as a platform industry make matching a very crucial element of improving commercialization efficiency. Based on these theoretical results, we conducted a more detailed industry analysis of nanotechnology. In a large scale quantitative survey, we addressed success factors and barriers to commercialization, including a detailed assessment of open innovation. Our survey on nanotechnology firms shows further that external cooperation is already a central element in some firms’ research strategy, however, organized absorption and in particular dissemination of knowledge is still neglected. Additionally, we see that higher readiness levels (with respect to technology, organization, manufacturing and investment) are positively associated with open innovation and that large firms in nanotechnology are more open towards external cooperation. There are no significant differences across European countries or branches.
    • Economic implications of 3D printing: Market structure models in light of additive manufacturing revisited

      Weller, Christian; Kleer, Robin; Piller, Frank (Elsevier, 2015)
      Additive manufacturing (AM), colloquially known as 3D printing, is currently being promoted as the spark of a new industrial revolution. The technology allows one to make customized products without incurring any cost penalties in manufacturing as neither tools nor molds are required. Moreover, AM enables the production of complex and integrated functional designs in a one-step process, thereby also potentially reducing the need for assembly work. In this article, we discuss the impact of AM technology at both firm and industry level. Our intention is to discern how market structures will be affected from an operations management perspective. Based on an analysis of established economic models, we first identify the economic and technological characteristics of AM and distill four key principles relevant to manufacturers at firm level. We then critically assess the effects of AM at industry level by analyzing the validity of earlier assumptions in the models when these four principles apply. In so doing, we derive a set of seven propositions which provide impetus for future research. In particular, we propose that in a monopoly, the adoption of AM allows a firm to increase profits by capturing consumer surplus when flexibly producing customized products. Meanwhile in competitive markets, competition is spurred as AM may lower barriers to market entry and offers the ability to serve multiple markets at once. This should ultimately result in lower prices for consumers.
    • Mapping the topic landscape of JPIM, 1984–2013: In search of hidden structures and development trajectories

      Antons, David; Kleer, Robin; Salge, Torsten Oliver (Wiley, 2016)
      During the three decades since its inception in 1984, the JPIM has shaped the evolution of innovation research as a scientific field. It helped create a topic landscape that is not only more diverse and rich in insights, but also more complex and fragmented in structure than ever before. We seek to map this landscape and identify salient development trajectories over time. In contrast to prior citation-based studies covering the first two decades of JPIM research, we benefit from recent advances in natural language processing and rely on a topic modeling algorithm to extract 57 distinct topics and the corresponding most common words, terms, and phrases from the entire full-text corpus of 1008 JPIM articles published between 1984 and 2013. Estimating the development trajectory of each topic based on yearly publication counts in JPIM allows us to identify “hot,” “cold,” “revival,” “evergreen,” and “wall-flower” topics. We map these topics onto the Product Development and Management Association (PDMA) Body of Knowledge categories and discover that these categories differ significantly not only in terms of their internal topic diversity and relative prevalence, but also—and arguably more importantly—in terms of their publication and citation trajectories over time. For instance, the PDMA category “Codevelopment and Alliances” exhibits only moderate topic diversity (7 out of 57 topics) and prevalence in JPIM (161 out of 1008 articles). That said, it is among the most dynamic categories featuring two evergreen topic (“Users and Innovation” and “Tools and Systems for Technology Transfer”) and three hot topics (“Open Innovation,” “Alliances and Cooperation,” and “Networks and Network Structure”) as well as a sharply growing annual number of citations received. Our findings are likely to be of interest to all those who are keen to (re)discover JPIM's topic landscape in search of hidden structures and development trajectories.
    • Walking parallel paths or taking the same road? The effect of collaborative incentives in innovation contests

      Boss, Viktoria; Kleer, Robin; Vossen, Alexander (World Scientific, 2017)
      We examine the role of participants’ interactions in innovation contests. In contrast to the dominant view of a competitive organisation of innovation contests, we suggest that, especially for ideation projects, a collaborative setting may be beneficial in terms of the amount of ideation activity and the quality of the generated ideas. Using two experiments, we show the usefulness of a collaborative approach when two particular conditions are met: first, the overall effort must be compensated according to performance criteria in such a way that participants are aware of the impact of their actions. Thus, the reward mechanism has to ensure that all contributors to a specific idea benefit from their involvement. Second, the host has to provide feedback throughout the contest to make it clear for participants what idea(s) to focus on. Our results show that, while the elaboration effort can be increased by introducing a collaborative reward mechanism alone, the best results are achieved when both conditions are met.
    • Degrowth and collaborative value creation: Reflections on concepts and technologies (Published Online)

      Hankammer, Stephan; Kleer, Robin (Elsevier, 2017)
      The concept of degrowth aims fundamentally at reducing material and energy throughput equitably, while questioning the desirability of further economic growth. In order to achieve this reduction of society’s throughput, radical changes in the ways goods and services are produced, distributed and used are required. In this think piece, concepts of consumer integration into the value creation process and (new) enabling technologies are discussed as possible constituting elements of alternative organizational models in a degrowth society. To date, collaborative value creation concepts, such as crowdsourcing and mass customization, have been discussed almost exclusively as business model patterns for companies in economies that are set to grow. The same applies to the assessment of (new) technologies, such as additive manufacturing, web-based user interfaces for co-creation, and other flexible production technologies that allow for collaborative and individualized production. Potential positive and negative effects of these concepts and technologies with regard to the objectives of degrowth are discussed in order to initiate a debate about the inclusion of CVC for the design of alternative organizational models that are in line with degrowth thinking. This think piece illustrates that several elements of collaborative value creation and its enabling technologies coincide with degrowth objectives but do not lead per se to their attainment. Thereby, a starting point for future (empirical) work in this area is generated.
    • Strategies for business model innovation: How firms reel in migrating value

      Hacklin, Fredrik; Björkdahl, Joakim; Wallin, Martin (2018)
      This paper brings together firm-level research on business models and industry-level research on value migration to examine patterns of business model innovation. We draw on qualitative data from 14 cases and 68 interviews in the computer and telecommunications industries to demonstrate how business model innovation is sensitive to industry-wide forces of value migration. Based on our analysis we conclude that when value is rapidly migrating across industries and between firms, proactively substituting key elements of the primary business model provides a better fit with the new value landscape than launching secondary business models in parallel. We suggest four underlying mechanisms that link business model innovation, value migration and subsequent outcomes. Unpacking business model innovation allows us to discuss contingencies for the main business model strategies, specifically in terms of limitations to—and opportunities of—changing the primary business model and the practice of parallel business models
    • Digital innovation in the Belgian insurance market

      Muylle, Steve; Standaert, Willem; Basu, Amit; Everaert, Edle; Decraene, Wim (Vlerick Business School, 2018)
      The insurance industry is changing, due to technology, market, and regulatory factors. Insurance products, processes, and business models are reshaped by rapid technological advances in big data, cloud computing, and Internet of Things. At the same time, consumers have become accustomed to the convenience, personalization, simplicity, and speed of interacting digitally via social media services and mobile applications offered by players such as Amazon, Airbnb, Facebook, Google and Uber. As a result, consumers increasingly expect insurance companies to offer digital services with compelling user interfaces and experiences. As to regulation, the financial services industry is preparing for the implementation of the General Data protection. Regulation (GDPR; Effective in May 2018), which gives consumers the right to request their personal data to be made portable or completely and securily deleted. In response, leading insurance companies have started deploying an ecosystem perspective, partnering with firms inand out-side the insurance industry1
    • How customer referral Programs harness the power of your customers' friendships

      Roelens, Iris; Baecke, Philippe; Benoit, Dries; Van den Bulte, Christophe (2017)
    • Improving index mutual fund risk perception: Increase financial literacy or communicate better? (Published Online)

      de Goeij, Peter; Van Campenhout, Geert; Subotic, Marjana (Wiley, 2018)
      We investigate the effect of financial literacy and index mutual fund risk disclosure format on investors’ risk perception by examining the risk disclosure part in the Key Investor Information Document (KIID) for UCITS funds in Europe. Using an experimental survey administered to 244 university students we find that both financial literacy and the KIID risk representation affect investors’ risk level perception accuracy. In addition, we find indications that financial literacy is less important if the complexity of the risk decision framework is reduced, although in our samle this effect is weak. Our results indicate that as an alternative to efforts taken to stimulate financial literacy, policy makers can effectively impact investors’ risk assessment by presenting a risk indicator that simplifies the decision framework for all investors, irrespective of their level of financial literacy.
    • From "manager" to "strategist": An examination of the evolving role of persistent high-growth entrepreneurs (Published Online)

      Dillen, Yannick; Laveren, Eddy; Martens, Rudy; De Vocht, Sven; Van Imschoot, Eric (Emerald, 2018)
      Few high-growth firms (HGFs) are able to maintain high-growth over time. The purpose of this paper is to find out why only a small number of firms become persistent HGFs, explicitly focusing on the role of the founding entrepreneur in this process.
    • Predicting the future of additive manufacturing: A Delphi study on economic and societal implications of 3D printing for 2030

      Jiang, Ruth; Kleer, Robin; Piller, Frank (Elsevier, 2017)
      Additive manufacturing (colloquially: 3D printing) is a highly discussed topic today. Previous research has argued that this technology will have profound effects for manufacturing businesses, but also society as such, demanding new corporate strategies and policies alike. Thus, the development of reliable future scenarios is key for strategic planning and decision making as well as for future research. Still, dedicated academic studies in this field remain scarce. We present the results of an extensive Delphi survey on the future of additive manufacturing with a focus on its economic and societal implications in this paper. Via an initial round of extensive qualitative interviews and a Delphi-based analysis of 3,510 quantitative estimations and 1,172 qualitative comments from 65 experts, we were able to develop two scenarios on the future of AM. Our first scenario is built on those Delphi projections with the highest consensus on the likelihood of occurrence, the second on the expected highest impact on the firm level. We present these scenarios in and conclude with a number of implications for industry, policy, and future research.
    • What every entrepreneur should know about growing his business: Six insights from our experts

      Manigart, Sophie; Haspeslagh, Philippe; Buyens, Dirk; Collewaert, Veroniek; Baeten, Xavier; Hamish, Scott (2017)
      Vlerick business experts work across all sectors and with businesses at many different stages of growth. They are renowned in the fields of finance, strategy, entrepreneurship, people and reward management, and many more. In this paper our 6 Vlerick experts each give one key insight for growing your business.